CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Review of Previous Research
There are two previous studies that deal with my study. Those have similar topic with my study. The first is Wahyuningati Purnaningtyas who do research her
study entitled An Analysis of Fear Found in Edgar Allan Poe’s Short Stories The
Case of the Fall of the House of Usher, the Black Cat and the Pit and the Pendulum in the year 2003. Her study deals with fear expression of the main
characters. The writer found the many things frightening the main characters. Strange objects, people, and place, making mistakes or making someone angry
can be the reason why they show the expression of fear. The other study which has similar topic was conducted by Robert A.
Boileau in 2005. The title is A Paradox on Human Attractiveness to the Preternatural Aspects of Death; He deals with preternatural aspect of death that
appear in Poe’s The Fall of the House of Usher. He found the paradox on human attractiveness toward death in his study. Death itself is one of quintessential-
features of gothic tale that I discuss in my study. This study aims to complete the two previous studies which had been
conducted previously. Those two studies tend to focus on the main aspects of death and fear which deal with this study. Those aspects are part of characteristic
of gothic tale which related with this study.
In this study I want to analyze the gothic tale by analyzing the intrinsic aspects firstly. I am interested in quintessential-features of gothic tale which have
been discussed a few in previous research.
2.2 Review of Theoretical Background
In this part, I present the review of theoretical background which consists of definition and characteristics of short story, structural approach, gothic tale and its
characteristics, summary of The Fall of the House of Usher, and the biography of Edgar Allan Poe.
2.2.1 Definition and Characteristics of Short Story
There are many definitions of short story. According to Burroway 1987: 15, a short story is short, and can waste no words. The short story can deal with only
one or view actions. It may recount only one central action and one major change of effect in the central character. H.G Wells, the best English novelist, as quoted
by Rees 1973:203, said: A short story is, or should be, a simple thing; it aims at
producing one single vivid effect; it has to seize the attention at the outset, and never relaxing; gather it together
more and more until the climax is reached. The limits of the human capacity to attend closely therefore set a limit to it;
it must explode and finish before interruption occurs or fatigue sets in.
In short, the writer can say that in reading a short story critically, the readers will see the message in it. A short story as a fiction is written based on the
imagination of the author when his imagination emerges, moves and works after the author knew and felt. Kenney 1966: 104-105 said that a short story should
have some characteristics, such as:
The short story seems particularly suited to effects of intensity and uses of the elements of fiction that tend to such effects. Kind of effect that appropriate to the
story is artificial limits.
b. Plot and Intensity
The plot of story will often turn on a single action incidental. It takes a great significance for the characters.
c. Characters and Intensity