Posibilities In Developing Bukit Lawang As An Ecotourism

POSIBILITIES IN DEVELOPING BUKIT LAWANG AS AN ECOTOURISM
A PAPER BY FENI MARIA LUMBAN TORUAN REG.NO : 102202019
DIPLOMA III ENGLISH STUDY PROGRAM FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDY UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA MEDAN 2013
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It has been proved by Supervisor,
Dra. Nur Cahaya Bangun, M.Si NIP. 19600711198903 2 001 Submitted to Faculty of Culture Studies, University of Sumatra Utara In partial fulfillment of the requirements for DIPLOMA (D-III) in English
Approved by Head of Diploma III English Study Program,
Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A. NIP. 19521126198112 1 001 Approved by the Diploma III of English Study Program Faculty of Culture Studies, University of Sumatra Utara As a paper for the Diploma (D III) Examination
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Accepted by the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the D-III of Examination of the Diploma III of English Study Program, Faculty of Culture Study University of Sumatra Utara
The examination is held August, 2013 Faculty of Culture Study, University of Sumatra Utara
Dean,

Dr. Syahron Lubis, M.A NIP. 19511013197603 1 001
Board of Examiners :
1. Dr. Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A (Head of ESP) 2. Dra. Nur Cahaya Bangun, M.Si (Supervisor) 3. Dra. Persadanta Br. Karo, M.Hum (Reader)

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AUTHOR’S DECLARATION
I am, FENI MARIA LUMBAN TORUAN, declare that I am the sole author of this paper, except where references is made in the text of this paper, this paper contains no material published elsewhere or extracted in whole or in part from a paper by which I have qualified for or awarded another degree.
No other persons’ work has been without due acknowledgement in the main text of this paper. This paper has not been submitted for the award of another degree in any tertiary education.

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ABSTRAK Kertas karya yang berjudul “Possibilities in Developing Bukit Lawang as an Ecotourism” memaparkan tentang keberadaan perkembangan kepariwisataan di Kabupaten Langkat, khususnya ekowisata di Bukit Lawang. Bukit Lawang dikenal untuk penangkaran orangutan Sumatra terbesar (sekitar 5.000 orangutan), dan juga jalur akses utama ke Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser. Bukit Lawang adalah pusat rehabilitas orangutan yang didirikan pada tahun 1973. Masalah yang di uraikan dalam kertas karya ini adalah bagaimana potensi yang dimiliki Bukit Lawang sebagai ekowisata dan bagaimana strategi pengembangan Bukit Lawang sebagai ekowisata. Melalui kertas karya ini penulis berharap, agar pemerintah mampu mengelola objek wisata di Bukit Lawang dengan sistem bekerja sama dengan masyarakat tanpa mengesampingkan kelestarian alam dan budaya sekitar juga sumberdaya lainnya seperti pengelolaan objek wisata yang berada di lokasi masyarakat. Pengelolaan tersebut seharusnya dikelola oleh pemerintah setempat dan bekerja sama dengan masyarakat agar pengelolaan tersebut maksimal. Teori yang digunakan dalam penulisan kertas karya ini adalah teori- teori pariwisata secara umum. Hasil yang diperoleh dalam penulisan kertas karya ini adalah pengelolaan suatu objek wisata yang maksimal diserahkan kepada pemerintah setempat dan dikelola bersama masyarakat dengan sistem pembangunan yang berkelanjutan tanpa mengesampingkan kelestarian lingkungan dan budaya masyarakat sekitar.
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ABSTRACT The title of paper “Possibilities in Developing Bukit Lawang as an Ecotourism” explained about the existence of the development of tourism in Langkat Regency, particularly ecotourism in Bukit Lawang. Bukit Lawang is known as the largest animal sanctuary of Sumatran orangutan (around 5,000 orangutans occupy the area), and also the main access point to the Gunung Leuser National Park from the east side. Bukit Lawang rehabilitation is the center for Orangutans which was found in 1973. The problem described in this paper is what is the potential of Bukit Lawang as an ecotourism and what is the strategies to develop Bukit Lawang as an ecotourism. Through this paper the author hopes, that the government is able to manage tourism in the Bukit lawang working together with the community without prejudice the preservation of natural and cultural: The management should be managed by local government along with the local people to get the maximum manage. The theory used in this paper is theories in general tourism. The results obtained in this paper is the management of a maximum attraction submitted to the local government and community with a system of sustainable development without compromising environmental sustainability and cultural communities.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First of all, I would like to thank and praise to the Almighty God, Jesus Christ for the blessing and giving me health, strength and ease to accomplish this paper as one of the requirements to get Diploma III degree in English from Faculty Culture of Studies Sumatera Utara University.
Then I would like to express a gratitude, love, and appreciation:
• To Dr.Matius C.A. Sembiring, M.A as the Head of Program Diploma III of English Study Program. Thank you for encouragements and suggestions during my academic years at university
• To Dra. Nur Cahaya Bangun, M.Si as my supervisor. Thank you for the valuable time on supervising the draft of this paper, for your assistance, guidance, and your advice from beginning up to the end of the writing.
• To Dra. Persadanta Br. Karo, M.A. as my reader. Thanks to correct this paper.
• To all my lecturer for giving me the knowledge, instruction, and valuable advice during I studied in English Diploma Study Program.
• Greater thanks are fully dedicated to my parents, especially my mom D.Napitupulu who have patiently given moral, spiritual, financial, support, advice, and your attention. Thank you for everlasting love and your pray.
• To my brother Frans Andri Joli Lumban Toruan, SP; my older sister Yuni Satriani Lumban Toruan, SE and Sri Nova Riza Lumban Toruan, ST; my younger sister Santa Crusita Lumban Toruan. Thank for your support, time, advice and your pray to me. May we can pride children. I love you all.
• To my best classmate Retno Vitasari Br.Tarigan (Rere), Charolina Lumban Gaol (Chacha), Deviana Sinabutar (Miss Lelet 1), Selly Napitupulu (my beloved aunty), Christin Magdalena Pasaribu (Miss Lelet 2 or Thithin), Dwi Khairani, Sry Ira Ameliani. Thanks a lot for your attention and time. And thanks to all my classmate
• To my beloved Family in FIB, KMK St. Gregorius Agung. Especially, Lisna Sitinjak, Beatrix Chance Tarigan, Mariani Sitanggang, Jernita Limbong, Alex Siahaan, Martua and Anastasya. Thanks for give spiritual support. I will be miss you all.
• To my best friend Veronika Manihuruk and Agus Mienda Sitepu who give your time to help me in finishing this paper. I hope our friendship everlasting
• To Head of Indonesian Guide Assosiation (B’Bahagia), B’Leng as guide, and all of guide in Indonesian Guide Assosiation in Bahorok. Thanks for all information, data, their kindness and their time.
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• Special thanks for Brother Johannes Silalahi who has always give valuable and spirit as long as I done my paper. Thanks for everbody who has been mentioned, just be sure that all of you
will be remembered forever. God Bless.
Medan, August 2013 The Writer
Feni Maria Lumban Toruan NIM.10202019
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
AUTHOR’S DECLARATIONS ............................................................... i COPY RIGHT DECLARATION ............................................................. ii ABSTRAK .................................................................................................. iii ABSTRACT ................................................................................................ iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ......................................................................... v TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................... vii
I. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of Study .......................................................................... 1 1.2 Problem of Study ................................................................................ 10 1.3 Scope of Study .................................................................................... 10 1.4 Reason for Chosen .............................................................................. 10 1.5 Significance of Study .......................................................................... 10 1.6 Method of The Writing ....................................................................... 11
II. THE REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Definition 2.1.1 Definition of tourism ........................................................................... 12 2.1.2 Definition of tourist ............................................................................. 14 2.1.3 Definition of nature tourism ................................................................ 15 2.2 Ecotourism 2.2.1 Definition of ecotourism ..................................................................... 15 2.2.2 The ecotourism activities .................................................................... 17
III. DISCUSSION 3.1 History of Bukit Lawang .................................................................... 19 3.2 The Potential of Bukit Lawang as ecotourism .................................... 21 3.3 The Strategies in developing Bukit Lawang as ecotourism ................ 24
IV. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 4.1 Conclusion .......................................................................................... 27 4.2 Suggestion ........................................................................................... 28
REFERENCES APPENDIX
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ABSTRAK Kertas karya yang berjudul “Possibilities in Developing Bukit Lawang as an Ecotourism” memaparkan tentang keberadaan perkembangan kepariwisataan di Kabupaten Langkat, khususnya ekowisata di Bukit Lawang. Bukit Lawang dikenal untuk penangkaran orangutan Sumatra terbesar (sekitar 5.000 orangutan), dan juga jalur akses utama ke Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser. Bukit Lawang adalah pusat rehabilitas orangutan yang didirikan pada tahun 1973. Masalah yang di uraikan dalam kertas karya ini adalah bagaimana potensi yang dimiliki Bukit Lawang sebagai ekowisata dan bagaimana strategi pengembangan Bukit Lawang sebagai ekowisata. Melalui kertas karya ini penulis berharap, agar pemerintah mampu mengelola objek wisata di Bukit Lawang dengan sistem bekerja sama dengan masyarakat tanpa mengesampingkan kelestarian alam dan budaya sekitar juga sumberdaya lainnya seperti pengelolaan objek wisata yang berada di lokasi masyarakat. Pengelolaan tersebut seharusnya dikelola oleh pemerintah setempat dan bekerja sama dengan masyarakat agar pengelolaan tersebut maksimal. Teori yang digunakan dalam penulisan kertas karya ini adalah teori- teori pariwisata secara umum. Hasil yang diperoleh dalam penulisan kertas karya ini adalah pengelolaan suatu objek wisata yang maksimal diserahkan kepada pemerintah setempat dan dikelola bersama masyarakat dengan sistem pembangunan yang berkelanjutan tanpa mengesampingkan kelestarian lingkungan dan budaya masyarakat sekitar.
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ABSTRACT The title of paper “Possibilities in Developing Bukit Lawang as an Ecotourism” explained about the existence of the development of tourism in Langkat Regency, particularly ecotourism in Bukit Lawang. Bukit Lawang is known as the largest animal sanctuary of Sumatran orangutan (around 5,000 orangutans occupy the area), and also the main access point to the Gunung Leuser National Park from the east side. Bukit Lawang rehabilitation is the center for Orangutans which was found in 1973. The problem described in this paper is what is the potential of Bukit Lawang as an ecotourism and what is the strategies to develop Bukit Lawang as an ecotourism. Through this paper the author hopes, that the government is able to manage tourism in the Bukit lawang working together with the community without prejudice the preservation of natural and cultural: The management should be managed by local government along with the local people to get the maximum manage. The theory used in this paper is theories in general tourism. The results obtained in this paper is the management of a maximum attraction submitted to the local government and community with a system of sustainable development without compromising environmental sustainability and cultural communities.
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Background of Study Nowadays tourist activity is dominated with visiting the area destination that offer natural and cultural tourist attractions, such as enjoying the natural landscapes and ecosystems the existing in it and enjoy the unique of landscapes and local cultural, in addition, new phenomenon tourism which is about how a someone enjoyed the tour is marked by the emergence of alternative tourist activities and attractions that support these activities such as ecotourism activities basically related to the preservation of nature, ecotourism has a main purpose for natural conversations , recently this is being promoted to go green program and reduce the negative impact of global warming North Sumatra is a province which is located in Sumatra island, Indonesia, and its capital is Medan. North Sumatra is located 1°-4° north latitude and 98°100° east longitude. Ethnic group of North Sumatra are Batak (the majority), Javanese, Nias, Malay, Chinese, Minangkabau and Banjar. In addition, North Sumatra have 5 religion, they are Muslim, Protestant, Catholic, Buddhist, and Hindu. North Sumatra is divided 25 regency (Asahan Regency, Batubara Regency, Dairi Regency, Deli Serdang Regency, Humbang Hasundutan Regency, Karo Regency, Labuhanbatu Regency, South Labuhanbatu Regency, North Labuhanbatu Regency, Langkat Regency, Mandailing Natal Regency, Nias Regency, West Nias Regency, South Nias Regency, North Nias Regency, Padang Lawas Regency, North Padang Lawas Regency, West Pakpak Regency, Samosir Regency, Serdang Bedagai Regency, Simalungun Regency, South Tapanuli
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Regency, Middle Tapanuli Regency, North Tapanuli Regency, and Toba Samosir Regency), 8 cities (Binjai City, Gunungsitoli City, Medan City, Padangsidempuan City, Pematangsiantar City, Sibolga City, Tanjungbalai City, and tebing Tinggi City), 325 districts, 5,456 sub-district. Now days, North Sumatra is found 2 national park, that is Gunung Leuser National Park and Batang Gadis National Park. Therefore, North Sumatra is one of province which has many nature tourism destinations.
Medan is the capital of North Sumatra which is a hot city, the temperature between 23-30 degrees Celsius. Medan is the third largest city in Indonesia. Medan has many tourism, such as Lake Toba, Mount Sibayak, Bukit Lawang, and etc.
Lake Toba is the largest lake in Southeast Asia. The area of Lake Toba is almost 1,265 KMs2 with the depth almost 450 meters. Lake Toba is an ancient lake that according to researches it is due to the explosion of around 73.00075.000 years ago on a large volcanic eruption is very powerful. Mount Sibayak is an active volcano located in Berastagi, about 2 hours from Medan. This mountain has height of 2,094 meters above surface of sea. At the top of this mountain we could see the view of the city of Medan and Berastagi.
Bahorok is a sub-district of Langkat Regency. Its capital is Bahorok town, and Bukit Lawang is a major local tourist attraction for viewing orangutans. To the south lies Karo Regency, to the west Southeast Aceh Province, to the east Salapian sub-district, and to the north Batang Serangan sub-district. Bahorok has 22 sub-district that is, Batu Jong Jong, Lau Damak, Sampe Raya, Perkebunan
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Bungara, Pekan Bahorok, Empus, Perkebunan Turangi, Simpang Pulau Rambung, Sematar, Perkebunan Pulau Rambung, Suka Rakyati, Tanjung Lenggang, Sumber Jaya, Perkebunan Sei Musam, Amal Tani, Bukit Lawang, Timbang Lawan, Timbang Jaya, Sebertung, Pulau Semikat, Sei Musam Kendit, and Musam Pembangunan. Bahorok has 4 religion that is, Muslim, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Buddhism. There are 65 mosques, 45 mushollas, 13 churches in the area. The largest of ethnic group is Javanese. There are 40 juniors: 10 middle schools, and 3 high schools and 17 junior madrasahs: 6 middle school madrasahs (5 private schools), and 2 private senior madrasahs. Notable agricultural production includes wet rice fields, maize, and cassava.
Bukit Lawang is a small tourist village at the bank of Bahorok River in North Sumatra province in Indonesia. Situated approximately 86 KM of Medan, Bukit Lawang is known for the largest animal sanctuary of Sumatran Orangutan (around 5,000 Orangutans occupy the area), and also the main access point to the Gunung Leuser National Park from the east side. Bukit Lawang rehabilitation center for Orangutans was founded in 1973. The main purpose is to preserve the decreasing number of Orangutan population due to hunting, trading and deforestation.
Accessibility of destination is the main factor and give affects the quality of the destination. Generally accessibility to Bukit Lawang is good and has been able to be passed by motorbike, car and big buses. Bukit Lawang is a small village, but it has facilities and accommodation available. There are, you can find:
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• Internet access – in three internet cafes located in the new-built village set on the hill bordering the right bank of the Bahorok River. The CDC internet café, on the right, provides free internet for local people but requests a donation from tourists. The orphane past Batu Mandi Hotel on the way to the bat cave also offers wifi internet return for donation to their cause.
• ATM – 11 km away in the village of Bahorok, a guide will take you by motorbike or you can try to take a local bus known as an “opelet”, plus potentially becak to take you to the bus station about 1.5 km from Bukit Lawang. The ATM is owend by Bank Rakyat Indonesia and is on the MasterCard/Cirrus Network.
• Money Changer – there are a number of money changers who will change a variety of Western and regional currencies to Rupiah.
• Market – on Friday from morning till around 3pm, located 2 KM in Gotong Royong. Popular with tourists, a variety of fruits, vegetables, spices, fish and clothes are sold. Another market on Sundays in Bahorok.
Accommodation in Bukit Lawang is in three main areas :
1. Before the village: • Rindu Alam, just before the village, has its own road entrance – so ask your becak/car to take you directly there.
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• Bukit Lawang Cottages Eco-Lodge, directly across the river from Rindu Alam.
• Batu Mandi – past the Ecolodge towards the bat cave (away from the village), about 200 metres.
In the village itself. 2. On the left bank, accommodation starts at the village entrance:
• Wisma Leuser Sibayak • Yusman Guest House • Bukit Lawang Indah Guest House • Junia Guest House & Brando Resto • Plan’s Stones Guest House • Jungle Boundry Guest House • On The Rock’s Bungalows 3. On the right bank, accommodation options begins walk along the river, past numerous small cafes/restaurants and shops • Yusri Caffe & Traditional Dance • Dandyla Restaurant/ bagus Wisata Holidays • Rock Garden • Rock Inn Bar • Rumah Makan Kelana ( Indonesian Food) • Tony’s café • Harmony Losmen • Inong Resto
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• Rossa caffe • Penginapan Pati’s • Anugrah Sibaba Guest House • Ida Restaurant ( Indonesian & Western Food) • Fido Dido Guest House • Eden Inn & Restaurant • Pinem Coffee Shop • Rain Forest Guest House • “Farina 53” Guest House, Bar & Restaurant • Mboy Guest House • Rani Café • Green Hill & Restaurant • “YA’AHOWU “ONO NIHA” Room & Restaurant • Indra Valley Inn & Resto • Garden Inn & Restaurant • Sinar Accomodation • Jungle Tribe Guest House & Resto • Sam’s Bungalows & Resto • Jungle Inn • Back in Touch Guest House • DP Caffe • Amazone Caffe • View Resto
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• Maliki Hill & Bar • Jhony’s Caffe • Thomas Retreat • Penginapan Batu Alam
Bukit Lawang is the most famous for being one of the last places in the world where we can see Orangutans in the wild. Bukit Lawang is situated at the eastern side of Gunung Leuser National Park. Gunung Leuser National Park is magnificient rainforest of thus park have become famous throughout the world as the harbor some of the most endangered and rare species on earth for example Sumateran Rhinoceros, Orangutan and Rafflesia the largest flower in the world. The park is in habited by animals like the Great Argus Pheasant, Elephant, Sumateran Tiger and as many as seven species of primates of which is Siamang which has an impressive, far-reaching vocal display. The agile and pretty face Thomas leaf-monkey and long tailed macaques. In total the park lists 285 species of bird, 90 of mammals, reptiles and 35 of amphibians. The park-flora contains some 3.500 plants species and on each hectare of the lowland forest you can amazing 13-60 trees species.Therefore, Gunung Leuser National Park is famous as ecotourism.
Bukit Lawang gives a sense of adventure, because they have many features such as rehabilitation center for Orangutan, the jungle track, the bat caves, the ship cave, rafting and river baths. This is what makes the foreign
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visitors, such as the Netherlands, Germany and Switzerland. Here is data of

foreign tourist visiting Bukit Lawang for these 3 years.

• 2010

No Month

Visitors

1. January

150

2. February

136

3. March

162

4. April

183

5. May

242

6. June

487

7. July

653

8. August

795

9. September

471

10. October

423

11. November

368

12. December

176

Source: INDONESIAN GUIDE ASSOTIATION

• 2011

No Month 1. January 2. February 3. March 4. April 5. May 6. June 7. July 8. August 9. September

Visitors 182 116 154 127 204 326 513 762 340

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10 October

421

11. November

332

12. December

191

Source: INDONESIAN GUIDE ASSOTIATION

• 2012

No Month

Visitors

1. January

174

2. February

127

3. March

158

4. April

153

5. May

221

6. June

496

7. July

672

8. August

775

9. September

493

10. October

387

11. November

374

12. December

187

Source: INDONESIAN GUIDE ASSOTIATION

• 2013

No Month

Visitors

1. January

143

2. February

104

3. March

138

4. April

165

5. May

157

6. June

242

Source: INDONESIAN GUIDE ASSOTIATION

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From this data, it is clear the interest of tourists is very high on destinations in Bukit Lawang, therefore, requires for the implementation of reform, developing, and promotion of tourism destinations. The writer hopes, with the potential of Bukit Lawang, government, communities and other parties to not saturate continuously improve and increase the existing potential, tourism potential and other potentials for the prosperity and welfare of Bukit Lawang society and society in North Sumatra. 1.2 The Problem of Study
1. What is the potential of Bukit Lawang to be an ecotourism? 2. What is the strategies to develop Bukit Lawang as an ecotourism? 1.3 Scope of study
• The potential of Bukit Lawang as an ecotourism. 1.4 The Purpose of the Writing
In writing this paper, there are two purposes, they are : 1) To describe the potential of Bukit Lawang 2) To describe the strategies to develop Bukit Lawang as an ecotourism.
1.5 Significance of Study This paper is very important for the writer. It is one of a fulfillment the
requirements to complete Diploma III English Study Program Sumatra Utara University.
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1.6 Method of The Writing In writing this paper, the writer uses some research. They are : 1) Field research Field research is a kind of research that is used to find certain data by having survey to the place that we need to know. 2) Library research Library research is a kind of research that is used to find certain data by collecting some books and journals that are relevant with the title.
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CHAPTER II THE REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Definition
2.1.1 Definition of Tourism
Theobald (1994) suggested that “etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, ‘tornare’ and the Greek, ‘tornos’, meaning ‘a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis’. The meaning changed in modern English to represent ‘one’s turn’. The suffix –ism is defined as ‘an action or process; typical behavior or quality’, while the suffix, -ist denotes ‘one that combined, they suggest the action’. When the word tour and the suffixes –ism and –ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represent a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a roundtrip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist.
According to Law No. 10/2009 on tourism, tourism is a wide range of tourist activities are supported by a range of facilities and services provided by the public, employers, Government and Local Government.
In 1976, the Tourism Society of England’s definition was: “Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes.” In 1981, the International Association of
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Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations classified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism statistics:
a) Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country travelling only within this country.
b) Inbound tourism, involving non-residents travelling in the given country. c) Outbound tourism, involving residents travelling in another country.
According to WTO (World Tourism Organization) (1995:5) the meaning of tourism is activities of person travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes.
Tourism is important and in some cases vital for many countries including Indonesia, because it brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and services available, contributing an estimated 5% to the worldwide gross domestic product (GDP), and it creates opportunities for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These services industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships, and taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.
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2.1.2 Definition of Tourist According to Law No. 10 year 2009 concerning the mention of tourism
tourist are people who do the tour. While Sihite (2000:49) notion tourists can be divided into two, namely:
1) Local tourists are tourists in the country or domestic tourists. 2) Foreign tourists are citizen of a country that held out the environment tour
of the country (into the other country). According to WTO (World Tourism Organization) (1995:5) the meaning of tourist is overnight visitor, visitor staying at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited. According IUOTO (International Union of Official Travel Organization), in Gamal Suwantoro (2009:4) use restrictions on tourists in general: visitors that every person who comes into a country or other residence and usually with the intent to do anything except work pay. So there are two categories of visitor designator, namely: 1) Tourists are visitors staying temporarily, at least 24 hours in a country. With the intention of travelling tourists can be classified into:
 Cruise (leisure), for purposes of recreation, vacation, health, study, religious, and sports.
 Relationships (relationship), trade, family, relatives, MICE, etc. 2) Travelers (excursionist) temporary visitors is someone living in a country
visited in less than 24 hours.
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Based on the description above, it can be concluded that the tourists are the ones who do the activities with the purpose of obtaining pleasure trip, not to work, settle down and earn living. 2.1.3 Definition of Nature Tourism
Nature tourism is responsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people. It is tourism based on the natural attractions of an area. Examples include bird watching, photography, stargazing, camping, hiking, hunting, fishing, and visiting parks. These experiential tourists are interested in a diversity of natural and cultural resources.
Nature tourism provides incentives for local communities and landowners to conserve wildlife habitats upon which the industry depends – it promotes conservation by placing an increased value on remaining natural areas. As nature tourism becomes more important to the local economy, communities have additional incentive to conserve their remaining natural areas for wildlife and wildlife enthusiasts.
2.2 Ecotourism
2.2.1 Definition of Ecotourism Hector Ceballos-Lascurain (1987) says, “Nature or ecotourism can be
defined as tourism that consist in travelling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with the specific objectives of studying, admiring,
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and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well as any existing cultural manifestations (both past and present) found in the areas.
In 1991, The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) say, “ecotourism is responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and sustains the well being of local people.” The World Conservation Union (1996) say that ecotourism is environmentally responsible travel and visitation to relatively undisturbed natural areas, in order to enjoy and appreciate nature (and any accompanying cultural features – both past and present) that promotes conversation has low negative visitor impact, and provides for beneficially active socio-economic involvement of local populations.
Generally, ecotourism deals with living parts of the natural environments. Ecotourism focuses on socially responsible travel, personal growth, and environmental sustainability. Ecotourism typically involves travel to destinations where flora, fauna, and cultural heritage are the primary attractions. Ecotourism is intended to offer tourist insight into impact of human beings on the environment, and to foster a greater appreciation of our natural habitats.
Responsible ecotourism programs include those that minimize the negative aspects of conventional tourism on the environment and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition evaluating environmental and cultural factors, an integral part of ecotourism is the promotion of recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic opportunities for
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local communities. For these reasons, ecotourism often appeals to advocates of environmental and social responsibility.
2.2.2 The Ecotourism Activities
Activities to do in ecotourism, namely:
• Trekking Trekking is a part of adventure travel, it involves visits to remote areas, lodging in tents and minimal accommodation. It is done for adventure and expedition.
• Hiking Hiking is an outdoor activity which consists of walking in natural environments, often in mountainous or other scenic terrain. People often hike on hiking walls. Studies have confirmed the health benefits of different types of hiking, including losing excess weight, decreasing hypertension, and improving mental health.
• Camping Camping is an outdoor recreational activity. The participants (known as campers) leave urban areas, their home region or civilization and enjoy nature while spending one or several nights outdoors, usually at a campsite. Camping may involve the use of a tent, caravan, cabin, a primitive structure, or no shelter at all. Camping as a recreational activity became popular in the early 20th century.
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• Rafting Rafting is the challenging recreational outdoor activity of using an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is usually done on white water or different degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid-1970s. it is considered an extreme sport, as it can be dangerous.
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CHAPTER III DISCUSSION 3.1 History of Bukit Lawang
Bukit Lawang is the name a village situated in North Sumatera on the edge of Gunung Leuser National Park . “Gunung” means “mountain”, “Bukit” means “hill” and “Lawang” means “door” or “gate”, therefore, “Bukit Lawang” means “The Hill which is the Gateway to the Mountain.”
Bukit Lawang is most famous for being one of the last places in the world where one can see Orangutans in the wild Bukit Lawang is situated at the eastern side of Gunung Leuser National Park. In 1973, Swiss Organization set up an orangutan rehabilitation center in Bukit Lawang. The purpose of the center was to rehabilitate Orangutan released from captivity. The rangers at the center teach the Orangutan all the necessary skills to survive in the wild. After an intense period of quarantine readjustment to the natural habitat and reintegration in the wild population. The Orangutan is released back into the jungle. All Orangutans released are still monitored by the rangers and they still provide them with supplementary food at the feeding platform until they become fully self reliant.
Bukit Lawang nature tourism become a tourist destination has appeal because endangered species of wild semi Sumatran Orangutan observation centre has an area of 200 ha, located in the village of Bukit Lawang, Bahorok district of North Sumatra. Formerly Bukit Lawang is the Orangutan rehabilitation centre for reintroduction back into the docile nature. The history of the Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre in Bukit Lawang started from program run b the WWF and
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Zoological Society Frankfurd in 1973. Time as a pioneer of the Regina Frey and Monica Borner see that the condition and situation appropriate to be Bukit Lawang Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre. At first Rehabilitation Centre is only visited by researchers and conservationists. In the later development, this area developed into a Sumatran Orangutan Observation Centre (Viewing Centre) and become one of the mainstay attraction in North Sumatra and visited foreign tourists. Recorded since 1972 to 2001, Bukit Lawang is the Orangutan rehabilitation centre. In this period, 229 former pet orangutans confiscated from wildlife trade have been rehabilitated at this location. Bukit Lawang until now recognized as the best gateway to enjoy the beauty of Gunung Leuser national Park is stunning. Although no longer a place Orangutan rehabilitation and release, the forest around Bukit Lawang still leaves opportunities for tourism activities and observation of Sumatra Orangutans and other species of plants and animals.
In the years after the arrival of the rehabilitation center more and more tourists found their way to Bukit Lawang and it became one of the most popular destinations in Sumatra.
A flash food hit Bukit Lawang on 2 November 2003. Described by witnesses as a tidal wave, the water was approximately 20 meters high, as it came crashing down the hills, wiping out everything in its path. The disaster which was the result of illegal logging, destroyed the local tourist resorts and had a devastating impact to the local tourism industry. Around 400 houses, 3 mosques, 8 bridges, 280 kiosks and food stalls, 35 inns and guest houses were destroyed by the flood , and 239 people (5 of them tourists) were killed and around 1.400 locals
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lost their homes. After eight months of rebuilding. Bukit Lawang was re-opened again in July 2004.
For many villagers the trauma of losing family, friends and their homes has taken a long time to come to terms. The people were facing unemployment and homelessness. It has been a long road to recovery and an especially hard task to rebuild a town with only limited financial assistance from the government. However the people in Bukit Lawang are survivors and the new village is taking shape and more businesses are opening again.
Especially the young generation is hoping to rebuild the village in more sustainable way than before and they aware of the importance of preservation of the fragile eco system they live in. They can use all the support they can get and the income of tourism will help them in realizing their ideas for a brighter future for Bukit Lawang.
3.2 The Potential of Bukit Lawang as an Ecotourism
Ecotourism is a form of sustainable tourism development in support of efforts to preserve the environment, including nature and cultures. The local government involves local people in developing ecotourism in the Gunung Leuser National Park.
WWF Indonesia sees in Bukit Lawang` area as a nature conservation area home to thousands of fauna, flora and animal species including Orangutans. With the development of ecotourism in the national park, local people must have equal
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values and bargaining position with other people, and they should not become objects but subjects of the ecotourism development projects.
Bukit Lawang is most famous for being one of the last places in the world where can see Orangutans in the wild. Bukit Lawang is situated at the eastern side of Gunung Leuser National Park. Gunung Leuser National Park is magnificient rainforest of thus park have become famous throughout the world as the harbor some of the most endangered and rare species on earth for example Sumateran Rhinoceros, Orangutan and Rafflesia the largest flower in the world. The park is in habited by animals like the Great Argus Pheasant, Elephant, Sumateran Tiger and as many as seven species of primates of which is Siamang which has an impressive, far-reaching vocal display. The agile and pretty face Thomas leafmonkey and long tailed macaques. In total the park lists 285 species of bird, 90 of mammals, reptiles and 35 of amphibians. The park-flora contains some 3.500 plants species and on each hectare of the lowland forest you can amazing 13-60 trees species.
Bukit Lawang gives a sense of adventure, because they have many features, namely
• Orangutan Feeding Platform Feeding time start 8am and 3pm everyday. There 25 minutes walk of about 25 KM from Bukit Lawang of the Orangutan station and than a short climb to the viewing centre.
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• Bat Cave This cave 2 KM south of Bukit Lawang, just 25 minute walk through the rubber plantation. There is short climbing before the entrance to the cave. Bring a flashlight for your safety.
• River Trip Floating along the scenic Bahorok River, is about 2 KM and take 2-3 hours on an infated tube. These can be rented at numerous location.
• Jungle Trekking The tropical rainforest of Gunung Leuser National Park has many interesting options for places to camp in the jungle for one day or longer.
• White Water Rafting Spend a day or more rafting down the Wampe river on rubber boat.
• Motor Bike Tour to Tangkahan From Bukit Lawang take a 2 hour ride to Tangkahan with motor bike, on the way you see a nice rurel village and organize elephant riding trek for 1 or 2 hours.
• Planting tree
The system on planting trees are tour land as private land they would like get the benefit from our land, they have some kind of trees on the land weather
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tree for wood or fruits. They plant the trees its for us and they share with the wild life ( as we have on the our land ) monkeys etc.
3.3 The Strategies in Developing Bukit Lawang as ecotourism The strategies in developing Bukit Lawang as ecorourism, namely:
• Socio-economic Development Socio-economic development can be achieved through participation,
commencing with the planning stage and following through to management and profit sharing. This should result in:
1. An increase in society’s capability and capacity; 2. An increase in society’s income and; 3. An increase in society’s participation. • Product Development
The ecotourism product that will be developed in the destination area must be adapted to the local environment, and its potential place in the tourism market. Matters to be considered include:
1. Natural attractions and activities for tourists; 2. The use of space; 3. Accommodation for staff; 4. Equipment necessary for the site; 5. Tourist accommodation; 6. Education of staff and tourists and; 7. Awards for excellence.
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• Effort Improvement Several criteria must be addressed in planning ecotourism development,
Namely: 1. The uniqueness of natural phenomenon (ecosystem, endemic flora and fauna); 2. Local culture; 3. The society’s acceptance of tourists; 4. Threats to the ecosystem; 5. Allocation of land; 6. Transportation to ecotourism destinations and; 7. Infrastructure. • Marketing The development of ecotourism can be an ongoing process if consumers
are made aware of what is available via a segmented marketing strategy. There is a need to:
1. Segment the market; 2. Develop a methodology for product marketing and; 3. Develop material that will be used in marketing.
The most promising market segments for Gunung Leuser National Park and surrounding region are ecotourists, geotourists, adventurers, tourists in search of historical heritage, and those in search of scientific and groups of students also have good potential and should be numerous among segments of the analyzed markets
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• Funding Funding development can be done in several ways, including by the
local community, through to the whole array of investment strategies. • Monitoring and Evaluation To guarantee the continuation of ecotourism, it is necessary to monitor
and evaluate its impacts on the environment, society and finances. It is necessary to determine:
1. The institution that will conduct the monitoring and evaluation; 2. The methodology and material that will be used; 3. When the monitoring will be done.
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CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 4.1 Conclusion Bukit Lawang is one of International tourism resort in Indonesia, especially in Northern Sumatera which is a natural attraction where the gate at the entrance to Gunung Leuser National Park, the last sanctuary of the Sumtran Orangutan. There are more 5000 Orangutans species in Gunung Leuser National Park which is one of largest orangutan rehabilitation places in the world. With the development of ecotourism, Gunung Leuser National Park become a destination recognized nationally and internationally. Given that environmental issues are becoming increasingly important on the public agenda (especially in the countries of Indonesia that generate tourism), travel agencies are becoming more sensitive to both the increased interests regarding the natural and protected areas, and to the impact that tourists can have on these fragile environments, undivided forest ecosystems and wildlife. The private sector in partnership with the local administration will have to successfully integrate natural resources, cultural and community in the region in a set of comprehensive tourism products to support the development of a sustainable tourism zone in the Gunung Leuser National Park.
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4.2 Suggestion Promotion of ecotourism activities is a major activity in Bukit Lawang.
Ecotourism, marine tourism, cultural tourism and agro-tourism are all advertised. Indonesia also highlights other tourism types such as youth tourism and convention tourism (exhibitions, meetings, seminars and conferences). However, as biodiversity has an important role in ecotourism and Indonesia is extremely well blessed with biodiversity, ecotourism will be a major thrust of tourism promotion. Maintaining biodiversity is fundamental to the integrity of Langkat Regency’s environment and hence its continued national economic output.
After reading this paper, the author suggest all of reader, let us joint to develop tourist areas in Indonesia, particularly in North Sumatera attractions, so that all people even international tourist come to visit it, such Bukit Lawang which is one of rehabilitation center Orangutans in Indonesia. Because if not local society itself that accentuates the north Sumatra tourist attraction, Bukit Lawang will never grow and tourists who come just want to know and do not interested to visit again.
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REFERENCES Ariyanto dan Ajie Hatadji. 2012. Travelicious Medan. Yogyakarta : B First. Bucklet, Ralf. 2010. Adventure Tourism Management. Sidney: Griffth University. . Ismayanti. 2010. Pengantar Pariwisata. Jakarta : PT Grasindo. Julfan, at all. 2010. Bibliography Hasil-Hasil Penelitian di Taman Nasional
Gunung Leuser. Medan: Balai Besar Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser. Larson, M.L.1984. Meaning-Based Translation: a guide to cross language
equivqlence. Lanham: Univ.Press. Sembiring, Matius.C.A. 2013. Buku Pedoman Program D-III Studi Bahasa
Inggris. Medan: Universitas Sumatera Utara. Susanti, Dini dan Yusuf Ali Rahman. 2008. Pelajaran IPS Geografi Bilingual.
Bandung : Yrama Widya. Suwantoro, Gamal. 1997. Dasar-dasar pariwisata. Yogyakarta : ANDI
Yogyakarta. Tourist Information. 2013. Bukit Lawang Map. Bukit Lawang: Indonesian Nature
Guides Assosiation. Yoety, H. Oka.A. 1996. Pengantar Pariwisata. Bandung: Penerbit Angkasa. http://bukitlawang.blogspot.com www.langkat.go.id
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APPENDIX
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The Thomas Leaf-Monkey The Long tailed macaques
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The Sumatran Orangutan The Waterfalls
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The Bahorok River
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