Learning Theory The correlation between students’ anxiety and their English learning achievement

effect. Watsons theory was more concerned with effects of stimuli. He derived much of his thinking from Pavlovs animal studies classical conditioning. This is also referred to as learning through stimulus substitution, a reference to the substitution of one stimulus for another. 12 Underlying the behaviorist perspective are several key assumptions: a People’s behaviors are largely the result of their experiences with environmental stimuli. As teachers, we must keep in mind very significant effect that students’ past and present environments are likely to have on their behaviors. We can often use this basic principle to our advantage: by changing the classroom environment, we may also be able to change how students behave. b Learning involves a behavior change. We might define learning as a change in behavior due to experience. Such a view of learning can be especially useful in classroom. Consider the scenario: “your students look at you attentively as you explain a difficult concept. When you finish, you ask “Any questions? You look around the room, and not a single hand is raised. “Good”, you think, “the all understand.” But do your students understand? On the basis of what you’ve just observed, you really have no idea whether they do or don’t. Only observable behavior changes-perhaps an improvement in achievement test scores, a greater frequency of independent reading, or reduction in off-task behavior that tell us learning has occurred. 12 http:www.lifecircles-inc.comLearningtheoriesbehaviorismWatson.html c Learning involves forming associations among stimuli and responses. By and large, behaviorist principles focus on relationships among observable events. d Learning is most likely to take place when stimuli and responses occur close together in time. When to events occur at more or less the same time – perhaps two stimuli or perhaps stimulus and a response – we say that there is Contiguity between them. e Many species of animals including human beings learn in similar ways. Many behaviorist principles have been derived from research with nonhuman animals. For instance, as seeing the moment, our knowledge about classical conditioning first emerged from Ivan Pavlov’s early work with dogs. And another well-known behaviorist B. F. Skinner, worked almost exclusively with rats and pigeons. The fact is that behaviorist principles developed from the study of nonhuman animals are often quite helpful in explaining human behavior. 13 5. Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura Social learning theory is a major growth of the behavioral learning theory tradition. Developed by Albert Bandura, social learning theory accepts most of the principles of behavioral theories but focuses to a much greater degree on the effects of cue on behavioral and on internal mental processes, emphasizing the effects of thought on action on thought Bandura, 1986. Bandura’s analysis of observational learning involves four phases: attentional, retention, reproduction, and motivational phases.

a. Attentional phase. The first phase in observational

learning is paying attention to a model. In general, students 13 Jeanne Ellis Ormrod, Educational Psychology Developing Learners, seventh edition, United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc.,2011,pp.286-287 pay attention to role models who are attractive, successful, interesting, and popular.

b. Retention phase. One teacher has students’ attention, it is

time to model the behavior they want students to imitate and then give students a chance to practice or rehearse.

c. Reproduction. During the reproduction phase, students try

to match their behavior to the models. In the classroom the assessment of students learning takes place during this phase. d Motivational phase. The final stage in the observational learning process is motivation. Students will imitate a model because they believe that doing so will increase their own chances to be reinforced. In the classroom the motivational phase of observational learning often entails, praise or grades given for matching your model. 14 b. Cognitive Learning Theory Cognitive learning theory focuses on internal mental processes and their learning role. Its primary concern is with making meaning out of information and experience Brunner, 1990. According this approach, learning is defined as the acquisition of new information. This is achieved through the processing and storing of knowledge and skills in one’s mind in such a way that they can be recalled and used at a later time when we needed Cooper, 1998. 15 Constructivism is a cognitive theory of development and learning based in the ideas of Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky. The constructivist approach supports the belief that children actively seek knowledge; it explains children’s cognitive development, 14 Robert E. Slavin, Educational Psychology Theory and Practice, tenth edition, New Jersey: Pearson, 2009,pp.132-133. 15 Kerri-Lee Krause, Educational Psychology for Learning Teaching, third edition, Australia: Cengage Learning, 2010,p.188. provides guidance for how and what to teach, and provides direction for how to arrange learning environments. 1 Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development In the early 1920s, the Swiss biologist Jean Piaget began studying children’s responses to problem of this nature. He used an approach he called the clinical method, in which an adult presents a task or problem and asks a child a series of questions about it, tailoring later questions to the child’s responses to previous ones. Piaget introduced a number of ideas and concepts to describe and explain the changes in logical thinking he observed in children and adolescents: a. Children are active and motivated learners b. Children construct rather than absorb knowledge c. Children learn through a combination of assimilation and accommodation d. Interactions with one’s physical and social environments are essential for cognitive development e. The process of equilibration promotes progression toward increasingly complex thought. f. In part as a result of maturational changes in brain, children think in qualitatively different ways at different ages. 2 Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development Lev Vygotsky’s theory contrast with Piaget, he believed that adults in any society foster children’s cognitive development in an intentional and somewhat systematic manner. Because Vygotsky emphasized the importance of adult instruction and guidance for promoting cognitive development – and, more generally, because he emphasized the influence of social and cultural factors in children’s cognitive growth – his perspective is known as a socialcultural theory. 16 c. Humanism Learning Theory Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. Essentially, these terms refer the same approach in psychology. Humanism is a psychological approach that emphasizes the study of the whole person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual’s behavior is connected to their inner feelings and self concept. The humanistic approach in psychology developed as a rebellion against what some psychologists saw as limitations of the behaviorist and psychodynamic psychology. The humanistic approach is thus often called the ‘third force’ in psychology after psychoanalysis and behaviorism Maslow, 1968. 17 Here two highly influential theories by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. 1. Rogers’ Theory of the Self Carl Rogers 1902-1987, a clinical psychologist, developed his theory of personality from observations the made while practicing psychotherapy. Rogers found that most people are constantly struggling to become their “real” selves. Rogers concluded that the overriding human motivation is a desire to become all that one truly is meant to be – to fulfill one’ capabilities and achieve 16 Jeanne Ellis Ormrod, Educational Psychology Developing Learners,pp.38-39 17 http:www.simplypsychology.orghumanistic.html one’ total potential. This powerful, lifelong motive Rogers called a striving toward self-actualization Rogers, 1970, 1971. 2. Maslows’ Self-Actualization Person Like Carl Rogers, psychologist Abraham Maslow 1908-1970 began with the assumption that people are free to shape their own lives, and they are motivated by a desire to achieve self-actualization. According to Maslow, a self-actualized person finds fulfillment in doing the best that he or she is capable of, not in competition with others but in an effort to become “ the best me I can be” Maslow, 1971a, 1971b. One of Maslow’s key concepts is the hierarchy of needs . Maslow believed that all humans face a series of needs, and that basic needs must be met before a person can fulfill higher level need. At the bottom are fundamental needs: those associated with physical needs, such as thirst and hunger, and those related to obtaining a safe and secure environment. At the above are psychological needs, including both the need of sense of belonging and the need to achieve competence, recognition, and high self-esteem. Once all the fundamental needs and psychological needs have been met, a person can begin to fulfill the need for self- actualization. 18 Behavioral and cognitive theories agree that differences among learners and the environment can affect learning, but they diverge in the relative emphasis they give to these two factors. Behavioral theories stress role of the environment-specifically, how stimuli are 18 Camille B. Wortman, Elizabeth F. Loftus and Charles Weaver, Psychology, fifth edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1999,pp.450-451. arranged and presented and how response are reinforced. Behavioral theories assign less importance to learner differences than do cognitive theories. Two learner variables that behavioral theories consider are reinforcement history the extent to which the individual was reinforced in the past for performing the same or similar behavior and developmental status what the individual is capable of doing given his or her present level of development. Cognitive theories acknowledge the role of environmental conditions as influences on learning. Teachers’ explanations and demonstrations of concepts serve as environmental inputs for students. Student practice of skill, combined with corrective feedback as needed, promote learning. Cognitive theories emphasize that role of learner’s thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and values. Learners who doubt their capabilities to learn may not properly attend to the task or may work halfheartedly on it, which retards learning. 19

3. Definition of Achievement

In general, every teaching-learning process will optimally succeedd as expected especially English. i.e., it’s taken by high or low score achievement. It is important know what learning achievement is . Achievement term came from Dutch ‘prestatie’ and then in Indonesian become ‘Prestasi’. Achievement is always related with certain activity, e.g. learning. Syah 1997 had explained that, “Prestasi belajar merupakan taraf keberhasilan siswa dalam mempelajari materi pelajaran di sekolah yang dinyatakan dalam bentuk score yang diperoleh dari hasil tes mengenai sejumlah materi pelajaran tertentu.” 20 Learning achievement is the learners’ successful value in studying the material at school which is said by score and which is obtained from the final test about specific 19 Dale H. Schunk, Learning Theories An Educational Perspective, Sixth edition, Boston, Pearson, 2008,p.22 20 Fadhilah Suralaga, Psikologi Pendidikan, Cet.1, Jakarta: LEMLIT UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2010,, p. 94. material. This means that achievement is the result that students obtain after following a teaching-learning process in certain period of time. The other definition of achievement in Cambridge Advanced Learner ’s Dictionary is “something very good and difficult that you have succeeded in doing.” 21 Another expert’s opinion such as Hornby about achievement is a thing done successfully, especially with an effort and skill. 22 Based on the description above, the writer tries to synthesize them to gain general meaning about achievement. According to the writer, achievement is the final result of students’ ability in learning English after they have followed a teaching-learning process in period of time. A student who learned English is he or she who wants to develop and gain their knowledge in mastering English well, by doing practices and exercises continuously. So, English learning achievement is the ability that students obtain in learning English after they have learned in teaching learning process in a particular period of time. z y As Sukmadinata quoted that, “Tingkat penguasaan pelajaran atau hasil belajar dalam mata pelajaran dilambangkan dengan angka- angka atau huruf, angka 0-10 pada pendidikan dasar dan menengah dan huruf A, B, C, D pada pendidikan tinggi”. Achievement of the lesson can be signed with number or letter. The number 0-10 is for elementary until middle of education, and the letter of A, B, C, D, to the high of education. 23 It means that achievement is not only a mastery of knowledge, but also capability and skillful of students in schools that is expressed in numerical value. 21 Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Third Edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,p.20. 22 A.S. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995,p.10. 23 Nana Syaudih Sukmadinata, Landasan Psikologi Proses Pendidikan, p.103 To promote student’s achievement many teachers use strategies of teaching as Keith Johnson said “Many teachers intuitively use strategies that promote the achievement and cognitive growth of student”. 24 Richard Kindvatter has found three strategies that have positive effect on students’ achievement. They are: direct teaching, mastery learning, and cooperative learning. But he also said that three is not a single teaching strategy that is the best approach as he said “there is not one single strategy that is the best approach but certain strategies, used in certain context have been documented by writer as improving achievement”. 25 Based on Richard points of view, we know that the main print in teaching is appropriate strategies and instruction to help learner understand the lesson. In choosing strategies the teacher must consider the students, their development level, cultural background, academic abilities, and social economic background. Concerned with many factors that can inhibit English learning achievement are obtained by students. Muhibbin syah globally has divided some factors influencing student’s achievement to be: internal factors, external factors, and approach to learning. A. Internal factors Internal factors are “factors from the inside of student themselves”. It is included two factors: physiological and psychological factors. 26 1. Physiological factors It is included general physical condition and specific physical condition of life. It means the condition of eyes and ear. 24 Keith Johnson, Educational Psychology For Effective Teaching,Toronto:Thompson Publishing Company, 1999,p.76 25 Richard Kindsvatter, William Willen, Margareth Ishler, Dynamic Of Effective Teaching.,p.135 26 Muhibbin Syah, Psikologi pendidikan, Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya, 1995, p.145 “Briefly to help student whose eyes or ear are not good enough teacher move them to the forward seat”. 27 Giving vitamins to our students preventively can help them protect their physical condition in this case; teacher can cooperate with student’s parents. 2. Psychological factors Generally among psychological factors of the student that seem essential are “intelligent of student, attitude, aptitude, interest and motivation”. 28 a. Intelligent “…… intelligent is one of human abilities to do activity and it is had been exist where ha was born”. 29 The quality of student intelligent cannot be doubted. It is influence student success in learning. It means that higher student’s intelligent bigger opportunities. They will be success in contrast lower student’s intelligent smaller opportunity they have. All teachers must realize that student’s intelligent superior or borderline generally will make our students get difficulty in learning. The smart students, they will be boring if the lessons are easy for them whilst the lower students will by very tired if the lesson too hard for them. b. Attitude “Attitude is internal phenomenon that have effective dimension tendency to response response tendency with stabile method toward object negatively or positively….” 30 The teachers have to able to manage the students, lessoned and also themselves in order to make positive attitude of the 27 Muhibbin Syah, Psikologi.,p.146 28 Ibid.,p.146 29 Cronbach in Sardirman, Interaksi dan Motivasi Belajar Mengajar,Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003, p.46 30 Ibid.p.149