The correlation between students’ anxiety and their English learning achievement
DEPAR THE FACULTY S
Nur Djumadil Iman 207014000286
ARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION Y OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAIN
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
that the ‘Skripsi’ (Scientific Paper) entitled “ THE CORRELATION BETWEEN STUDENTS’ANXIETY AND THEIR ENGLISH LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT” (A Study Research at First Year Students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400), written by NUR DJUMADIL IMAN, student’s registration number:207014000286, was examined by the committee on May, 22th 2013, The ‘Skripsi’ was declared to have passed and, therefore, fulfilled one of the requirements for the academic title of ‘S.Pd. (Bachelor of Arts)’ in English Language Education
at the Department of English Education.
Jakarta, May, 22th2013. Examination Committee
CHAIRMAN :Drs. Syauki, M.Pd ( )
NIP. 1964121 299103 1 003
SECRETARY :Neneng Sunengsih, M.Pd. ( )
NIP. 19730625 199903 2 001
EXAMINERS : 1.Dra. Fachriany, M.Pd. ( )
NIP.19700611 199101 2 001
2.Neneng Sunengsih, M.Pd. ( )
NIP. 19730625 199903 2 001
Dean of the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’Training
Prof. Dr. H. Rif’at Syauqi Nawawi, MA. NIP. 1952052 0198103 1 001
Iman, Nur Djumadil (NIM: 207014000286), THE CORRELATION BETWEEN
STUDENTS’ ANXIETY AND THEIR ENGLISH LEARNING
ACHIEVEMENT, at the first year students of SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400. A Skripsi of English Education at The Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, 2013.
Advisor : Drs. Syauki, M.Pd.
Keywords:Students’ Anxiety, English Learning Achievement
The purpose of this study is aimed to investigate the correlation between
students’ anxiety in English learning and their English achievement. The study was conducted at the first year students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400. The populations of this study were all the first year students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400 2012-2013. There were 109 students as the sample of population and 40 of them were used as the sample of study. There were two variables investigated in this study, namely: students’
anxiety in English learning and English achievement.
The method used in this research is quantitative research through correlation technique. In collecting the data the writer did two kinds of instrument which were a questionnaire and the result of the test. The questionnaire aimed to know about anxiety in teaching learning process that was done in the classroom, and the result of the test is aimed to know the students achievement after learning English. The data was analyzed by using SPSS. From the calculation of statistic by applying SPSS program, it was known that the value of coefficient correlationrxy= - 0.657. It is in the interval of 0.41– 0.70, this means that the correlation belongto “medium correlation”in negative range. In other words, there is a correlation between variable X and variable Y.
The result showed that the correlation between students’ anxiety and students’
English learning achievement is significant (rxy = - 0.657). Because of the value of significant lower than level of significant and it is negative (- 0.657 < 0.05), it means that
students’ anxiety has negative correlation and it’s significant to their English
achievement. In this research can be concluded that the higher anxiety the students have, the worst English achievement they will get. But, the lower anxiety students have, the better English achievement they will get. So, the null hypothesis (Ho) of the research is rejected and alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted.
SISWA DENGAN HASIL BELAJAR BAHASA INGGRIS,di SMP BAKTI
MULYA 400, Skripsi Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris di Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, 2013. Pembimbing : Drs. Syauki, M.Pd.
Kata Kunci:Kecemasan Siswa, Hasil Belajar Bahasa Inggris
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui korelasi antara kecemasan siswa dalam belajar bahasa Inggris dan hasil belajar bahasa Inggris. Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk mengetahui apakah terdapat korelasi antara kecemasan siswa dengan hasil belajar bahasa Inggris mereka dan membicarakannya dalam skripsi penulis, Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di kelas satu SMP BAKTI MULYA 400. Populasi penelitian ini adalah semua siswa kelas satu SMP BAKTI MULYA 400 2012-2013. Terdapat 109 siswa sebagas sample populasi dan 40 sample dijadikan sample dalam penelitian ini. Ada dua variable yang diteliti dalam penelitian ini, yaitu kecemasan siswa dalam bahasa Inggris dan hasil belajar bahasa Inggris.
Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah penelitian quantitatif melalui teknik korelasi. Dalam mengumpulkan data, penulis melakukan dua macam instrumen yakni kuesioner dan hasil tes bahasa Inggris siswa. Kuesioner ditujukan untuk mengetahui kecemasan siswa dalam proses belajar mengajar dalam kelas, dan hasil tes bahasa Inggris ditujukan untuk mengetahui hasil belajar siswa setelah belajar bahasa Inggris. Data dianalisa menggunakan SPSS. Dalam perhitungan statistik dalam mengaplikasikan program SPSS, diketahui nilai koofisien korelasi rxy = - 0.657. ini berada antara 0.41– 0.70, arti korelasinya adalah “korelasi sedang” dalam nilai negatif. Dengan kata lain, terdapat korelasi antara variable X dan variable Y.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa korelasi antara kecemasan siswa dan hasil belajar bahasa Inggris adalah signifikan (rxy= - 0.657). dikarenakan nilai signifikan lebih rendah dari tingkat signifikansi dan negatif (- 0.657 < 0.05), artinya kecemasan siswa mempunyai korelasi negatif dan signifikan dengan hasil belajar bahasa Inggris. Dalam penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa semakin tinggi kecemasan yang dimiliki siswa, maka semakin kecil hasil belajar yang mereka dapat. Namun, semakin kecil kecemasan yang dimiliki, semakin bagus hasil belajar yang dicapai. Artinya (Ho) pada penelitian ini ditolak dan (Ha) diterima.
In the name of Allah SWT, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
All praises be to Allah, the Lord of the world, who always gives His mercy and blessing upon the writer in completing this skripsi. Praying and greeting always be upon His messangger, our prophet Muhammad SAW, his family and his followers, who has spread Islam all over the world.
Firstly, the writer would like to express his deepest gratitude to his beloved parents, (the late father) Drs. Djamil, L. and especially his mother Artini S,Pd., who always support and give charity with a deep caring and loving to the writer. And for all her family (who always give support).
And also, all persons who have helped him in finishing this skripsi, particularly to:
1. Prof. Dr. H. Rif’at Syauqi Nawawi, M.A., the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiya. 2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd.as the head of English Education Department. And
Neneng Sunengsih, S.Pd, the secretary of English Education Department. 3. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd, also as his advisor who patiently guided him in writing
this skripsi. And All Lecturers at English Education Department, who have guided and given him valuable knowledge and chances in finishing his study.
4. Dr. Hadi Suwarno as the Headmaster of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400, who has allowed him, doing the research of this skripsi at the institution he leads.
5. All Teachers at SMP BAKTI MULYA 400, especially English Teachers who has helped hi in conducting the research. And also, The first year students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400, who have assisted in collecting the data during the research.
6. His lovely family, who always give him support and always take care of him with very much love and patient.
their any contribution to her during finishing her study.
8. The staffs of libraries whose books he used for the references of this research; main library Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University, library
Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training, andNational Library.
“May Allah SWT,blessyouall…”
This ‘skripsi’ is presented to English Department of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Isamic University Jakarta as partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Degree of Strata-1 (S1).
Finally, yet importantly, the writer realized that ‘skripsi’ still has some weakness and mistakes. Therefore, he would be grateful to accept any suggestion and correction from anyone for the better writing. And then, he hopes that this ‘skripsi’ could be valuable writing. “Amiin…”.
Jakarta, February, 22th2013
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1 The Score of Instruments………...32
Table 3.2 Instrument Indicators………33
No. Dokumen : FITK-FR-AKD-063
UIN JAKARTA Tgl. Terbit : 1 Maret 2010
FITK No. Revisi: : 01
Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No 95 Ciputat 15412 Indonesia Hal : 1/1
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI
Saya yang bertanda tangan dibawah ini:
Nama : Nur Djumadil Iman
NIM : 207014000286
Tempat/Tgl. Lahir : Biak, 11 Januari 1990
Jurusan : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
MENYATAKAN DENGAN SESUNGGUHNYA
Bahwa skripsi yang berjudul The Correlation between Students’ Anxiety and Their English Learning Achievement (A Study Research at the First Year Students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan) adalah benar hasil karya sendiri dibawah bimbingan dosen:
Nama Dosen Pembimbing : Drs. Syauki, M.Pd.
NIP :1964121 299103 1 003
Jurusan/Program Studi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
Demikian surat pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sesungguhnya dan saya siap menerima segala konsekuensi apabila terbukti bahwa skripsi ini bukan hasil karya sendiri.
Jakarta, 22 Mei 2013 Yang Menyatakan
NUR DJUMADIL IMAN NIM. 207014000286
ENDORSEMENT SHEET ………. i
ABSTRACT ……….………..ii ABSTRAK ……….iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... iv
PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI ... vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……..……….………..…vii
LIST OF TABLES ………..ix
LIST OF APPENDIXES ……….x
CHAPTER I INTORDUCTION A. Background of the Study …... 1
B. The Limitation of the Study…..……... 3
C. The Statement of the Study ...4
D. The Purpose of the Study ... 4
E. Significance of the Study...4
CHAPTER II THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK A. Theoritical Description...5
1. Definition of Learning ...5
2. Learning Theory ...8
3. Definition of Achievement ...17
4. Definition of Anxiety ...23
B. Conceptual Framework...26
C. Hypothesis ...27
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. The Method of the Research ...28
C. The Place and time of the Research ...29
D. Population, Sample and Sampling ...29
E. Data of Research ...30
F. Technique of Collecting Data and Research Instrument...31
G. Technique of Data Analysis ...35
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDING A. The Description of Data ...36
B. The Finding ………36
1. Students’Anxiety Scores……..………..36
2. Students’English Scores ……..……….36
C. Data Analysis...37
D. The Test of Hypothesis……….37
E. Interpretation of Data ……….38 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion ...39
B. Suggestion ...40
Appendix 1. Blue PrintKalkulasi Statistik ‘Students’ Anxiety Score
and Students’ English Score dengan menggunakan SPSS ……..45 Appendix 2. Blue Print of Table ofStudents’ Anxiety Score
and Students’ English Score ……….46
Appendix 3. The Result of Instrument Validity……….…………47
Appendix 4. Angket untuk Siswa ……….………48
Appendix 5. Blue Print of Table of Studensts’ Anxiety Scores ….………..56 Appendix 6. Blue Print of Table of Studensts’ English Scores……….58 Appendix 7. Blue Print of Table ofThe Result of Students’ Anxiety
and English learning achievement by Product Moment Table…..60 Appendix 8. “r” Table of Product Moment Person……….62
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the study
English is very important subject in the human life to learn today; it’s
caused by developing of science. It may be true to say that English now is the most important language in the world. English is one of foreign language that has been used widely in the world as means of communication and as a tool in gathering information. According to estimation, there are about a billion people in the world today learning English as a foreign language.1 English is also commonly used in the writing of many books of science and technology.
And now English as second language in Indonesia. Unfortunately, the English mastery of Indonesia people is generally bad. To change this, of course we must improve our English, through formal education at school over Indonesia the teaching of English is aimed to prepare youngest Indonesia in facing the rapid progress of science and technology to be more confident to get involved in international relation as part of the world society.
In Indonesia, English has been taught to the students from the elementary school up to university. Studying English is very important for them, because there are many books needed to increase their knowledge, written in English. Their good mastery in English, therefore, will make them easier to comprehend those books. One of important factor that is able to increase their knowledge is motivation in teaching English; teacher should realize about
student’s motivation, teacher should understand student’s needs.
In fact, we have known that among students who had graduated from university has not enough yet competence in English. It can be seen from the fact that the students have low ability in mastering the language and they also have little knowledge of English.2
Keith Johnson,An Introduction to Foreign language Teaching and, (Pearson Education Limited: 2001):p.3.
Since this language has been taught in Indonesian school, some problems which are found by teachers or students arisen concerning with the lesson of English. This can be seen that the most of students are not able to communicate well orally or in written, and it also can be seen from their English scores that are still categorized low.
The writer argued that the low English scores may be caused by students of English as a billingual difficult lesson, that English is a foreign language and it is very far different from their mother tongue. The foreign language also contain different aspects that have to be understood by the English learner. Those things burdened most students in English teaching-learning process.
Those things are called Language anxiety. As Skehan stated that “Language anxiety, a type of anxiety specifically associated with L2 learning contexts, can arise from many kinds of sources, according to the learners' individually unique frame of reference.”3
Because of those things burden the students, some of students has
experience of anxiety in the English classroom while trying to learn English, neither they’re doing English exercise on the class, having a homework, or having an examinaton. Horwitz have stated that, The subjective feelings, psycho-physiological symptoms, and behavioral responses of the anxious foreign language learner are essentially the same as for any specific anxiety. They experience apprehension, worry, even dread. They have difficulty concentrating, become forgetful, sweat, and have palpitations. They exhibit avoidance behavior such as missing class and postponing homework. 4
The writer figure out language anxiety happens among students. Anxiety often arise which is related with anxiousness in facing situation that never be worried before. Zeidner said that “Anxiety tends to bother teaching-learning process and achievement in education, even bother attention, working
Kota Ohata, Potential Sources of Anxiety for Japanese Learners of English: Preliminary Case Interviews with Five Japanese College Students in the U.S., TESL-EJ Journal, Vol.9, No.3, (Tokyo, Japan, International Christian University, Des. 2005): p.1.
S. Atef-Vahid and A. Fard Kashani,The Effect of English Learning Anxiety on Iranian High-School Students’ English Language Achievement(Iran,Iran University of Science & Technology, Vol.2, Issue 3, September 2011): p.1.
memory, and retrieval.”5For example, 'Speaking in front of others' is rated as the biggest cause of anxiety followed by 'worries about grammatical mistakes', 'pronunciation' and 'being unable to talk spontaneously'. And they think English is difficult to learn. These situation and condition can affect learners’English learning achievement indirectly.
English learning achievement as a determiner of learner’s achievementis
influenced by such factors as learner’s capability, learner’s interest, and anxiety which has been around the students. Their English achievement was measured through their final standardized English exam administered by the school.
Based on the background of the study previously, the writer argued that one of important think that can affect learners in mastering English is
learners’ anxiety. The student’s anxietyin language learning aslo affect their English score. It is approved that the students who have low English proficiency and difficulties’ belief can arise anxious personality. To ensure the success of English education, language anxiety is a significant issue which cannot be ignored. Then, the writer assumes that anxiety is regarded as one of dominant factors that can affect the students’ English learning achievement.
The writer stated that it is such an interesting study to have a research on
what have been mentioned above in order to find whether the students’
anxiety has any correlation with their English learning achievement. It is expected that this study may support the English Teaching-Learning process to improve the quality of study.
B. The limitation of the study
In this paper, the writer limits the study on the discussion of students’
anxiety in correlation with their English learning achievement. In this research, the object of this study is limited on student’s anxiety of the first year students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400.
G. Mattews, Human Performance Cognition Stress and Individual Differences, (Philadelphia: Pyschology Press, 2000), p.27.
C. The Statement of the Study
Based on the limitation of the studyabove, the statement problem is: “is there any correlation between students’ anxiety and their English learning achievement?”
D. The Purpose of study
This study aims to know whether anxiety has any correlation with students’ English learning achievement. The writer hopes that this research will help to figure outhow students’ anxiety can affect their English learning achievement.
E. The Significant of the Study
Theoretically the result of this study will answer the question at the formulation of the problem whether the student’s anxiety in learning English is really important factor in English achievement.
It is expected that the result of the study will be useful for:
a. Headmaster: As feed back to the institution to improve for improving the system of education and facilitating what the teacher needs.
b. Students: to get an information about correlation between students’ anxiety and their english learning achievement. In order they can stimulate themselves to increase their english achievement.
c. Teacher: to give an encouragement to the students in order that he/she can improve the students’ english learning achievement. d. Other researchers: the result of this research can give information
about the correlation between students’ anxiety and their english learning achievement that can be used to basic consideration and basic information to increase learning achievement especially English.
5 CHAPTER II
This chapter discusses about definition of learning, the learning theories, definition of achievement, definition of anxiety, types of anxiety and conceptual framework.
A. Theoretical Description 1. Definition of Learning
Learning has an important role in people life. The most development process is through learning activity directly. According to Santrock, Learning is a relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills, which comes about through experience. For example: when children learn how to use computer, they might make some mistakes along the way, but at a certain point they will get the knack of the behaviors required to use the computer effectively. The children will change from being individuals who cannot operate a computer into being individuals who can.1 It means learning is always about changes of individual who learns whether its head for good or bad, planned or not. Another thing which is always concerning about learning is experience, experiencethat’s classified with other people or the environment.
Some expert has explained about learning, such as Witherington, he explained that learning is changes of personality, which manifestation as pattern of new responses which are skill, attitude, and knowledge.
The closest opinion has defined by Hilgard quoted by Sukmadinata, he said that learning is a process where an attitude arises or changes, because of there are responses to the situation.2
John W. Santrock, Educational Psychology: Classroom Update; Preparing for Praxis and Practice, second edition, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001),p.210.
Nana Syaudih Sukmadinata, Landasan Psikologi Proses Pendidikan, (Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya, 2003),pp.155-156.
Another definition that has to be informed here such as Kingsley quoted by Soemanto. He stated that Learning is the process by which behavior (in the broader sense) is originated or changed through practice or training.3
Then, De Cecco also explained in his book about learning. “Learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioral tendency and is the result of reinforced practice.”4
Likewise,Morrison, he stated that “Learning refers to the cognitive and behavioral changes that result from experiences.” The experiences that make up the curriculum are at the core of the learning process, and an experience which is provided for children should be based on theory or theories of how children learn.5
Psychologists have many different ways to explain the definitions of learning. But, either explicit or implicit, finally it has the similar meaning from the definition of learning which always directed to a process of someone behavior’schange based on practice or certain experience.
Based on the description above, the writer tries to synthesize them to gain general meaning about learning. Learning is an effort in developing individual personality, either physical aspect or physiological. Learning is an activity that has purpose to make a change of behavior, attitude, habitual, knowledge, skill, etc, as a result of individual experience of interaction with the environment.
Many learning definitions have been defined above. Some of them are different but there also have the same concept. The same concept looks as the learning principle.
Some of learning principle has explained in the following; 1. Learning as a part of development
2. Learning long live
Wasty Soemanto, Psikologi Pendidikan Landasan Kerja Pemimpin Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT RINEKA CIPTA, 2006),p.104.
John P. De Cecco,The Psychology of Leaning and Instrucition:Educational Psychoogy, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, INC.,1968), p.243.
George S. Morrison,Early Childhood Education Today, eleventh edition, (New Jersey: Pearson, Inc., 2009), p.113
3. Learning achievement affected by bring factors, environment, mature and also effort from self-individual
4. Learning includes the whole aspect of life
5. Learning activity occur in every place and every time 6. Learning happens with or without a teacher
7. Learning scheduled and with intentional gain high motivation 8. Learning act varieties from simple to complex
9. In learning occur the inhibitions
10. In the certain learning activity is needed help or guide from other people.6
Learning is continuing process and long live education, occurs in house, school, even in society environment. In facing and adapting the requirement of world development, UNESCO formulated four pillars of education, they are;
a. Learning to know, it may be regarded as both a means and an end of human existence. People have to learn to understand the world around them. To provide the cognitive tools required to better comprehend the world and its complexities, and to provide an appropriate and adequate foundation for future learning.
b. Learning to do, Learning must transform certified skills into personal competence. It is assessed by looking at a mix of skills and talents, social behavior, personal initiative and a willingness to work. To provide the skills that would enable individuals to effectively participate in the global economy and society.
c. Learning to live together, Education should help in inculcating a spirit of empathy in students so that it can have a positive effect on their social behavior throughout their lives. Understanding each other, resolving conflicts through dialogue and discussion should be the essential tools of present day education.
d. Learning to be, the aim of development is the complete fulfillment of man and his development in a holistic way as an individual, member of a family and community and as a responsible citizen.7
In Monitoring learning, learning achievement means assessing the knowledge, skills, and attitude values of pupils. One of parameter that is used to measure level of education success is students learning achievement. If the students show good learning achievement, it means that the education process is success. But when students show bad learning achievement, it means that the education process has failed.
Therefore, considering the important role of students learning achievement to determine the success of education, so learning process should be directed toward the increasing of students learning achievement. But, firstly the writer tries to explain the learning theoryes.
2. Learning Theory
Learning theories are conceptual frameworks that describe how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Learning brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's knowledge, skills, and values. There are three main categories of learning theory: behaviorism, cognitive, and constructivism.
Behaviorism theory is one of experimental psychology which is adopted by education. Even though in the last twentieth century, another theory has reaction with behaviorism, but behaviorism had dominated the learning phenomenon. Behaviorism is thus the study of the relation between people’s
environments and their behavior, without appeal to hypothetical
events occurring within their heads.8 It means Behaviorism is the view that behavior should be explained by observable experiences, not by mental processes.
In the following explanations, the writer tries to describe behaviorism psychologists and their approach. They are Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Edward Thorndike, Watson, and Skinner. Their theories are the most referenced in education.
1.) Classical Conditioning Theory by Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Pavlov is one of psychology’s most recognizable
figures, the Russian physiologist who developed the concept which had been widely known as Classical Conditioning. Morris and Maisto had explained it in their book. Pavlov (1849-1936) discovered Classical Conditioning almost by accident. He was studying with dog salivates experimental. Classical (or Pavlovian) conditioning refers to the type of learning in which a response naturally elicited by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral stimulus. There are four elements of classical conditioning. (1) The unconditioned stimulus, (2) the unconditioned response, (3) the conditioned stimulus, (4) the conditioned response. The unconditioned stimulus is an event that automatically elicits a certain reflex reaction, which is the unconditioned response. The conditioned stimulus is an event that is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus. The learned reaction elicited by repeatedly paired is the conditioned response.9
2.) Operant Conditioning Theory by Skinner
Skinner’s learning theory had widely known as Operant Conditioning Theory (also called instrumental conditioning). This
Neil R. Carlson & William Buskist, Psychology the Science of Behavior, 5thedition, (U.S.A.: Allan and Bacon, 1997), p.15.
Charles G. Morris and Albert A. Maisto, Understanding Psychology, 6thedition, (New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2003), pp.165-166.
is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur. The consequences -reinforcement or punishment- are contingent on the organism’s behavior. Reinforcement (reward) is a consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur. In contrast, punishment is a consequence that decreases the probability a behavior will occur.10
3.) Connectionism theory by Edward Thorndike
Learning theory of Edward Thorndike is also called by Connectionism Theory. According to Connectionism Theory, Learning is the result of associations forming between stimuli and responses. Such associations or "habits" become strengthened or weakened by the nature and frequency of the S-R pairings. The paradigm for S-R theory was trial and error learning in which certain responses come to dominate others due to rewards.11 Thorndike characterized the two most basic intelligences as Trial-and-Error and Stimulus-Response Association. It means changing of learning behavior can be seen as observable behavior and hidden behavior).
4.) Behaviorism theory by Watson
Watson was one of the behaviorists which came after Thorndike. John B. Watson was an important contributor to classical behaviorism, who paved the way for B. F. Skinner's or operant behaviorism. Watson coined the term "Behaviorism" in 1913. Behaviorism assumes that behavior is observable and can be correlated with other observable events. Thus, there are events that precede and follow behavior. Behaviorism's goal is to explain relationships between antecedent conditions (stimuli), behavior (responses), and consequences (reward, punishment, or neutral
Neil R. Carlson & William Buskist,Psychology the Science of Behavior, pp.165-166.
effect). Watson's theory was more concerned with effects of stimuli. He derived much of his thinking from Pavlov's animal studies (classical conditioning). This is also referred to as "learning through stimulus substitution," a reference to the substitution of one stimulus for another.12
Underlying the behaviorist perspective are several key assumptions:
a) People’s behaviors are largely the result of their experiences with environmental stimuli. As teachers, we must keep in mind very significant effect that students’
past and present environments are likely to have on their behaviors. We can often use this basic principle to our advantage: by changing the classroom environment, we may also be able to change how students behave.
b) Learning involves a behavior change. We might define learning as a change inbehaviordue to experience. Such a view of learning can be especially useful in classroom.
Consider the scenario: “your students look at you attentively as you explain a difficult concept. When you finish, you ask “Any questions? You look around the room, and not a single hand is raised. “Good”, you think, “the all understand.”
But do your students understand? On the basis of what you’ve just observed, you really have no idea whether they do or don’t. Only observable behavior
changes-perhaps an improvement in achievement test scores, a greater frequency of independent reading, or reduction in off-task behavior that tell us learning has occurred.
c) Learning involves forming associations among stimuli and responses. By and large, behaviorist principles focus on relationships among observable events.
d) Learning is most likely to take place when stimuli and responses occur close together in time. When to events occur at more or less the same time –perhaps two stimuli or perhaps stimulus and a response – we say that there is Contiguity between them.
e) Many species of animals including human beings learn in similar ways. Many behaviorist principles have been derived from research with nonhuman animals. For instance, as seeing the moment, our knowledge about classical conditioning first emerged from Ivan Pavlov’s
early work with dogs. And another well-known behaviorist B. F. Skinner, worked almost exclusively with rats and pigeons. The fact is that behaviorist principles developed from the study of nonhuman animals are often quite helpful in explaining human behavior.13
5).Social Learning Theory by Albert Bandura
Social learning theory is a major growth of the behavioral learning theory tradition. Developed by Albert Bandura, social learning theory accepts most of the principles of behavioral theories but focuses to a much greater degree on the effects of cue on behavioral and on internal mental processes, emphasizing the effects of thought on action on thought (Bandura, 1986).
Bandura’s analysis of observational learning involves four
phases: attentional, retention, reproduction, and motivational phases.
a). Attentional phase. The first phase in observational learning is paying attention to a model. In general, students
Jeanne Ellis Ormrod, Educational Psychology Developing Learners, seventh edition, (United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc.,2011),pp.286-287
pay attention to role models who are attractive, successful, interesting, and popular.
b). Retention phase. One teacher has students’ attention, it is
time to model the behavior they want students to imitate and then give students a chance to practice or rehearse. c). Reproduction. During the reproduction phase, students try
to match their behavior to the models. In the classroom the assessment of students learning takes place during this phase.
d) Motivational phase. The final stage in the observational learning process is motivation. Students will imitate a model because they believe that doing so will increase their own chances to be reinforced. In the classroom the motivational phase of observational learning often entails, praise or grades given for matching your model.14
b. Cognitive Learning Theory
Cognitive learning theory focuses on internal mental processes and their learning role. Its primary concern is with making meaning out of information and experience (Brunner, 1990). According this approach, learning is defined as the acquisition of new information. This is achieved through the
processing and storing of knowledge and skills in one’s mind in
such a way that they can be recalled and used at a later time when we needed (Cooper, 1998).15
Constructivism is a cognitive theory of development and learning based in the ideas of Jean Piaget, and Lev Vygotsky. The constructivist approach supports the belief that children actively
seek knowledge; it explains children’s cognitive development,
Robert E. Slavin, Educational Psychology Theory and Practice, tenth edition, (New Jersey: Pearson, 2009),pp.132-133.
Kerri-Lee Krause,Educational Psychology for Learning & Teaching, third edition, (Australia: Cengage Learning, 2010),p.188.
provides guidance for how and what to teach, and provides direction for how to arrange learning environments.
1) Piaget’sTheory of Cognitive Development
In the early 1920s, the Swiss biologist Jean Piaget began studying children’s responses to problem of this nature. He used an approach he called the clinical method, in which an adult presents a task or problem and asks a child a series of questions about it, tailoring later questions to
the child’s responses to previous ones. Piaget introduced a number of ideas and concepts to describe and explain the changes in logical thinking he observed in children and adolescents:
a. Children are active and motivated learners b. Children construct rather than absorb knowledge c. Children learn through a combination of
assimilation and accommodation
d. Interactions with one’s physical and social
environments are essential for cognitive development
e. The process of equilibration promotes progression toward increasingly complex thought.
f. In part as a result of maturational changes in brain, children think in qualitatively different ways at different ages.
2) Vygotsky’s Theory of Cognitive Development
Lev Vygotsky’s theory contrast with Piaget, he believed that adults in any society foster children’s cognitive
development in an intentional and somewhat systematic manner. Because Vygotsky emphasized the importance of
adult instruction and guidance for promoting cognitive development – and, more generally, because he emphasized the influence of social and cultural factors in children’s cognitive growth – his perspective is known as asocialcultural theory.16
c. Humanism Learning Theory
Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. Essentially, these terms refer the same approach in psychology. Humanism is a psychological approach that emphasizes the study of the whole person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Humanistic psychologists believe that an individual’s
behavior is connected to their inner feelings and self concept. The humanistic approach in psychology developed as a rebellion against what some psychologists saw as limitations of the behaviorist and psychodynamic psychology. The humanistic approach is thus often called the ‘third force’ in psychology after
psychoanalysis and behaviorism (Maslow, 1968).17
Here two highly influential theories by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
1. Rogers’ Theory of the Self
Carl Rogers (1902-1987), a clinical psychologist, developed his theory of personality from observations the made while practicing psychotherapy. Rogers found that most people are constantly struggling to become their “real” selves. Rogers concluded that the overriding human motivation is a desire to become all that one truly is meant to be – to fulfill one’ capabilities and achieve
Jeanne Ellis Ormrod,Educational Psychology Developing Learners,pp.38-39
one’ total potential. This powerful, lifelong motive Rogers called a striving toward self-actualization
(Rogers, 1970, 1971).
2. Maslows’ Self-Actualization Person
Like Carl Rogers, psychologist Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) began with the assumption that people are free to shape their own lives, and they are motivated by a desire to achieve self-actualization. According to Maslow, a self-actualized person finds fulfillment in doing the best that he or she is capable of, not in competition with others but in an effort to become “ the best me I can be” (Maslow, 1971a, 1971b).
One of Maslow’s key concepts is the hierarchy of needs. Maslow believed that all humans face a series of needs, and that basic needs must be met before a person can fulfill higher level need. At the bottom are
fundamental needs: those associated with physical needs, such as thirst and hunger, and those related to obtaining a safe and secure environment. At the above are
psychological needs, including both the need of sense of belonging and the need to achieve competence, recognition, and high self-esteem. Once all the fundamental needs and psychological needs have been met, a person can begin to fulfill the need for self-actualization.18
Behavioral and cognitive theories agree that differences among learners and the environment can affect learning, but they diverge in the relative emphasis they give to these two factors. Behavioral theories stress role of the environment-specifically, how stimuli are
Camille B. Wortman, Elizabeth F. Loftus and Charles Weaver,Psychology, fifth edition, (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1999),pp.450-451.
arranged and presented and how response are reinforced. Behavioral theories assign less importance to learner differences than do cognitive theories. Two learner variables that behavioral theories consider arereinforcement history (the extent to which the individual was reinforced in the past for performing the same or similar behavior) and developmental status(what the individual is capable of doing given his or her present level of development).
Cognitive theories acknowledge the role of environmental conditions as influences on learning. Teachers’ explanations and
demonstrations of concepts serve as environmental inputs for students. Student practice of skill, combined with corrective feedback as needed, promote learning. Cognitive theories emphasize that role of
learner’s thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and values. Learners who doubt their capabilities to learn may not properly attend to the task or may work halfheartedly on it, which retards learning.19
3. Definition of Achievement
In general, every teaching-learning process will optimally succeedd as expected especially English. i.e., it’s taken by high or low score achievement. It is important know what learning achievement is.
Achievement term came from Dutch ‘prestatie’ and then in Indonesian become ‘Prestasi’. Achievement is always related with certain activity, e.g. learning. Syah (1997) had explained that, “Prestasi belajar merupakan taraf keberhasilan siswa dalam mempelajari materi pelajaran di sekolah yang dinyatakan dalam bentuk score yang diperoleh dari hasil tes mengenai sejumlah materi pelajaran tertentu.”20 (Learning achievement is the learners’ successful value in studying the material at school which is said by score and which is obtained from the final test about specific
Dale H. Schunk, Learning Theories An Educational Perspective, Sixth edition, (Boston, Pearson, 2008),p.22
Fadhilah Suralaga, Psikologi Pendidikan, Cet.1, (Jakarta: LEMLIT UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2010,), p. 94.
material). This means that achievement is the result that students obtain after following a teaching-learning process in certain period of time.
The other definition of achievement in Cambridge Advanced
Learner’s Dictionary is “something very good and difficult that you have succeeded in doing.”21
Another expert’s opinion such as Hornby about achievement is a thing
done successfully, especially with an effort and skill.22
Based on the description above, the writer tries to synthesize them to gain general meaning about achievement. According to the writer,
achievement is the final result of students’ ability in learning English after they have followed a teaching-learning process in period of time.
A student who learned English is he or she who wants to develop and gain their knowledge in mastering English well, by doing practices and exercises continuously. So, English learning achievement is the ability that students obtain in learning English after they have learned in teaching learning process in a particular period of time.
y As Sukmadinata quotedthat, “Tingkat penguasaan pelajaran atau hasil belajar dalam mata pelajaran dilambangkan dengan angka-angka atau huruf, angka-angka 0-10 pada pendidikan dasar dan menengah dan huruf A, B, C, D pada pendidikan tinggi”. (Achievement of the lesson can be signed with number or letter. The number 0-10 is for elementary until middle of education, and the letter of A, B, C, D, to the high of education).23 It means that achievement is not only a mastery of knowledge, but also capability and skillful of students in schools that is expressed in numerical value.
Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Third Edition, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press),p.20.
A.S. Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner Dictionary, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995),p.10.
To promote student’s achievement many teachers use strategies of teaching as Keith Johnson said “Many teachers intuitively use strategies that promote the achievement and cognitive growth of student”.24
Richard Kindvatter has found three strategies that have positive effect on students’ achievement. They are: direct teaching, mastery learning, and
But he also said that three is not a single teaching strategy that is the best approach as he said “there is not one single strategy that is the best approach but certain strategies, used in certain context have been documented by writer as improving achievement”.25
Based on Richard points of view, we know that the main print in teaching is appropriate strategies and instruction to help learner understand the lesson. In choosing strategies the teacher must consider the students, their development level, cultural background, academic abilities, and social economic background.
Concerned with many factors that can inhibit English learning achievement are obtained by students.
Muhibbin syah globally has divided some factors influencing student’s achievement to be: internal factors, external factors, and approach to learning.
A. Internal factors
Internal factors are “factors from the inside of student themselves”. It is included two factors: physiological and psychological factors.26
1. Physiological factors
It is included general physical condition and specific physical condition of life. It means the condition of eyes and ear.
Keith Johnson,Educational Psychology For Effective Teaching,(Toronto:Thompson Publishing Company, 1999),p.76
Richard Kindsvatter, William Willen, Margareth Ishler,Dynamic Of Effective Teaching.,p.135
“Briefly to help student whose eyes or ear are not good enough teacher move them to the forward seat”.27
Giving vitamins to our students preventively can help them protect their physical condition in this case; teacher can cooperate with student’s parents.
2. Psychological factors
Generally among psychological factors of the student that
seem essential are “intelligent of student, attitude, aptitude, interest and motivation”.28
“……intelligent is one of human abilities to do activity and it is had been exist where ha was born”.29
The quality of student intelligent cannot be doubted. It is influence student success in learning. It means that higher student’s intelligent bigger opportunities. They will be success in contrast lower student’s intelligent smaller opportunity they
All teachers must realize that student’s intelligent superior or borderline generally will make our students get difficulty in learning. The smart students, they will be boring if the lessons are easy for them whilst the lower students will by very tired if the lesson too hard for them.
“Attitude is internal phenomenon that have effective dimension tendency to response (response tendency) with stabile method toward object negatively or positively….”30
The teachers have to able to manage the students, lessoned and also themselves in order to make positive attitude of the
Cronbach in Sardirman, Interaksi dan Motivasi Belajar Mengajar,(Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2003), p.46
students and avoid negative attitude of students. It aims to avoid negative attitude of our students and our profession as teacher. The teacher not only master the lesson, but also able to make the students sure that the lesson will be useful for them.
“Generally aptitude is the ability of human to get the goal or success in the future…..”.31
Based on this definition, we may state aptitude will influence high and low of our student’s achievement, in
specific lesson. So that it is not a brief treatment if we and parents force our students to go to specific skill school without knowing our children aptitude. Foreign our student will give bad influence to the achievement of our students.
d. Interest and Motivation
About interest and motivation have been discussed that interest and motivation have correlation each other. Motivation
and interest caused by same thing. “Motivation comes because of the need of human and interest is also like it”.32
Interest is the basic motivational elements. The process of learning will be run well if the students have good interest in the lesson, because they have motivation from their self.
b. External factors
Muhibbin Syah gives external factors influencing student’s
achievement to be social environment, national environment, learning approach factor.33
Sudirman AM,Interaksi dan Motivasi,.p.150
1. Social environment
Social environment such as school, teacher, staff administration, and friends can influence spirit of learning of the students.
2. National environment
Factors included in national environment are school building and the place, houses of the students, learning tools, season, and the time of learning. This factor considered has great influence in our students.
3. Approach to learning
Approach of learning can be considered as all method or strategies. Used by our students in improving effectiveness and efficiency of learning process. In this case learning approach means a set of operational theory to solve the problems to get goal of special learning.34
Beside internal and external factors, approaches to learning also considered have great influence in the success of our students in learning. A student who use deep approach maybe has greater opportunity to get better achievement than who whose surface approach or reproductive approach35
As Sabri have stated in his book, that Psychological factor involves interest, motivation, intelligence, perception, think, and memory.36 Their perception that English as a foreign language, then they think English is difficult to learn. This condition can affect learners’ English learning achievement and arising anxiety indirectly. It can be said that English learning achievement will be different depend on what the kinds of anxiety of the learner has.
Although English learning achievement can be depended into the learner within his anxiety, in education or learning system, learning
Larso in Muhibbin,Psikologi,.p.155
achievement have to be measured. Curriculum or syllabus in learning shows the general achievement called standard competences. It shows minimum target of learner which is explained by affective, cognitive, and psychomotor standard. Those standards are appropriate with the educational theory used by the nation. In conclusion, learning achievement is target measured by competences of the learner in learning which are shown by score as a sign and score.
4. Definition of Anxiety
If someone is deal with something, and this certain thing can threat him/her or, at least, can cause unpleasant thing to him/herself which inhibit emotion or physiological, then he/she can be said have an anxiety.
Talking about anxiety, Anxiety is one of dominant factor that can affect students learning. Commonly, learners have anxiety, when he/she faces the difficult lesson, oriented to get the high scores, pressure from teacher in teaching and also having anxiety in test.
According to Spielberger (1983) quoted by Sara Atef-Vahid and Alireza Fard Kashani, Anxiety can be described as the subjective feelings of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with an arousal of the autonomic nervous system. 37
The other psychologist tries to make a general definition of anxiety like Branca. He mentions that, Anxiety is “best defined and described by comparing it to fear. The feeling-tone of anxiety is very similar to the feelings experienced in fear.”38
Similarly with Kowalski (2000) stated that the basic meaning of anxiety, “Anxiety involves a vague, highly unpleasant feeling of fear and apprehension.”39 It means that anxiety is normal thing or an emotion condition that will happen to any individual. This common reaction also
S. Atef-Vahid and A. Fard Kashani,The Effect of English Learning Anxiety on Iranian High-School Students’ English Language Achievement,p.2.
Albert A. Branca, PSYCHOLOGY the Science of Behavior, (U.S.A: Allyn and Bacon, INC.,1964),p.432.
John W. Santrock, Educational Psychology: Classroom Update; Preparing for Praxis and Practice, second edition. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001),p.189.
happen in classroom activities especially English classroom. Because of it can inhibit new learning behavior and performance which had been learned previously by all students.
Anxiety is believed to consist of two components:
1. Cognitive anxiety which refers to the mental aspect of anxiety experience including negative expectations, preoccupation with performance and concern about others’ perceptions.
2. Somatic anxiety which refers to learners’ perceptions of the
psychological effects of the anxiety experience as reflected arousal and unpleasant feeling states such as nervousness, upset stomach, pounding heart, sweating, and tension (Morris, Davis and Hutchings 1981).
To some researchers (Lang 1971; Cheng 2004) anxiety has three different components rather than two: cognitive, physiological (somatic), and avoidance behavior (behavioral). It is believed to involve a variety of dysfunctional thoughts, increased physiological arousal and maladaptive behaviors. Some studies find somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety covary and are hard to separate. Learners experience apprehension, worry and dread. They exhibit behavior such as missing the class and postponing the work or assignment. The relations among anxiety, cognition and behavior are best seen as recursive or cyclical where each influences the other. A demand to answer a question in a foreign language class may cause learners to become anxious and anxiety leads to worry and rumination. Cognitive performance is diminished because of the divided attention and therefore performance suffers, leading to negative self evaluations and more self deprecating cognition which further impairs performance. In an educational setting anxiety may impair the ability to take in information, process it and retrieve it, can limit the use of both short and long term memory.40
From the definition above, they could be concluded that anxiety is an unpleasantcondition that can’t be ignored by anybody as a response from
Feryal Cubukcu, Foreign Language Anxiety, (Izmir, Turkey, Iranian Journal of Language Studies (IJLS), Dokuz Eylul University, Vol. 1(2), 2007): p.2.
any situation which threats the forthcoming marked by complaints such as: worry, apprehensive, and fear.
Every learner has different rates of anxiety. This anxiety can be observed directly. As Michael W. Passer mentioned that anxiety responses have four components. They are:
1. A Subjective-emotional component, including feelings of tension and apprehension,
2. ACognitive component,including worrisome thoughts and a sense of inability to cope,
3. Physiological responses, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension, rapid breathing, nausea, dry mouth and, 4. Behavioral responses, such as avoidance of certain situations and
impaired task performance.41
English anxiety also called a foreign language anxiety that is a situation or reaction to learners in facing inconvenient condition when they’re in English teaching-learning process. Actually this anxiety is less than anxiety of English test. This anxiety, considered as a one of resistor factor in teaching-learning process, which bothers learners performance of cognitive functions, such as concentration, remember, concept form, and problem solving (Sieber, 1977).42Besides, English lesson is ‘scary’;anxiety also can arise by teaching system, teachers’ capability and students’
There are three main types of foreign language anxiety on which all practitioners agree:
1. Communication apprehension is a type of shyness characterized by fear of and anxiety about communicating with people. Difficulty in speaking in public, in listening or learning a spoken message is all manifestations of communicative apprehension.
Michael W. Passer and Ronald E. Smith,PSYCHOLOGY The Science of Mind and Behavior, second edition, (New York: McGraw Hill, 2004),p.513.
Ratna Yudhwati & Dany Haryanto,Teori-Teori Dasar Psikologi Pendidikan, (Jakarta: Prestasi Pustaka, 2011),p.152.
2. Test anxiety refers to a type of performance anxiety stemming from a fear of failure. Test anxious students often put unrealistic demands on themselves.
3. Fear of negative evaluation, apprehension about others’ evaluations,
and avoidance of evaluative situations. Learners may be sensitive to the real evaluations or imagined of their peers.43
English anxiety is usually similar with students’ disbelief in learning English. They think English is difficult and fright which arisen because
they’re not sure with their ability, attitude, and hopeless. It will affect
learners’ learning development. According to Sabri, definition of
‘development’ is changes of qualitative and quantitative which concerns aspects of human mental-psychology.44 It means individual conditioning from child (always be forced by parents to learn English and must get best score), with having this experience will cause anxiety, or having mental-conflict in choosing lesson which is liked by students, but inappropriate with they hope or will.
B. Conceptual Framework
According to Sabri, Students’ learning achievement can be influenced by some factors, come from internal and external factors of the students. One of internal factor is psychological term that can affect the students’
learning achievement are IQ, talent, interest, and cognitive ability, including anxiety.45
Students’ achievement is signed by their final scores. It is resulted
from the average of their daily scores (formative scores) and their final test score.
Students’ anxiety especially in learning English as one factor that is
assumed can interfere the students’ learning achievement in English by the
following reason :
Feryal Cubukcu,Foreign Language Anxiety,p.3.
H. M. Alisuf Sabri,Psikologi Pendidikan, p.11.
Students who have anxiety in learn English will drive their self not to learn. In other words, they will unenjoy in their learning process.
Students who have high level of anxiety and worry constantly can significantly impair their ability to achieve.
Students who have high levels of anxiety can discourage students from participating in classroom activities or studying at home, and may even cause them to lose their self-confidence and motivation for learning English.
Students who have higher achievement usually have lower anxiety significantly than students who have lower achievement.
Students’ anxiety doesn’t only come from inside, but also comes from
outside, such as, teacher, parents, environment.
Finally, it can be concluded that the higher anxiety the students have, the worst English achievement they will get. But, the lower anxiety students have, the better English achievement they will get. In other words, there is a
correlation between students’ anxiety and English learning achievement.
Based on theoretical and conceptual framework stated before, the writer formulated the hypothesis of this study namely: there is a correlation
between students’ anxiety and English Learning achievement.
D. Statistical Hypothesis
Statistically, the formulation of hypothesis as follows:
- Ho = There is no correlation between students’ anxiety and their English learning achievement
- Ha = There is a correlation between students’ anxiety and their
Research is an important way to get fact of a problem. Research methodology, more over, is the most significant aspect in conducting a research. In this chapter, the researcher discusses, The Method of the Research, Variables, The Place and Time of the Research, Population, Sample and Sampling, Data of Research, Technique of collecting Data, and Technique of Data Analysis.
A. The Method of the Research
In doing this research, the writer used a survey method through correlation techniques.
The method used in this study is the correlation research. According to Gay, Correlational research is a research study that involves collecting data in order to determine whether and to what degree a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables.1 It means this study is focusing on knowing correlation between two variables.
In education study, the correlational research is usually used to search some variables which are estimatable that has a significant role in achieving successful of teaching-learning process.
According to Suharsimi variable is “everything that will be objects of research or factors that have influence in the phenomena studied.2
Ary states that “Variable is an attribute that is regarded as reflecting or expressing some concept or construct.3
For example, about achievement and internal motivation, strategy learning, college attendance intensity, and including anxiety.4
Sukardi,Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan, (Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara, 2003),p.166.
Suharsimi Arikunto,Prosedur Penelitian,(Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta, 1996), p. 99
Donald Ary,Introduction to Research in Education;6 th ed, (USA: Wadsworth Group Thomson Learning Inc, 2002),p.30
The dependent variable of this research is English learning achievement (variable Y), and the independent variable is students’ anxiety (variable X). In this case, that anxiety in learning English (variable X) is regarded as a factor that influence students’ English learning achievement (Variable Y). Finally, he tried to correlate both variables.
X = Students’ anxiety in learning English (Independent variable) Y = Students’ English learning achievement (Dependent variable)
C. The Place and Time of the Research
This research was conducted at SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan. The research started on January, 11thand was done on January, 12th2013.
D. Population, Sample and Sampling
LR Gay in educational research stated “a population is a group to which writer would like to result of study to be generalizable.”5
Suharsimi Arikunto stated that population is “all object of research.”6 And in encyclopedia of educational evaluation stated that population is a set (a collection) of an elements possessing one or more attributes of interest.7 In this research, the researcher take all of the first year students of SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan. There are fifth classes. The totals of first year students are 109 students.
LR Gay,Education Research,(New York: Macmillian Publishing Company, 1992),p.140
Arikunto said that “sample is part population that researched.8Based on this statement the writer took of population to be sample. Furthermore, Arikunto explained that if the subject is changed, the writer takes 11%. The researcher took 40 students from 109 students of the sample. They are the first year students of SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan.
The sample is taken using random sampling techniques. Ary said that random sampling is the best known of the probability sampling procedures that has basic characteristic is that all members of the population have an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample.9
Also, Ahmad Tanzeh said that Sampling is the technique to removal of sample.10
Sampling is the process of selecting units from population of motivation so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalize result back to the population from which they were chosen.11
The writer only took 40 respondents as samples that were selected randomly. The writer gives the questionnaire to all class. Then, the writer took the questionnaire from every eight students from each class.
E. Data of Research
According to Suharsimi Arikunto his book “ Prosedur Penelitian” he states that “Data is the result of writer investigation number as fact.”12
Data is the important factor within a research. It is needed by the researcher to solve problems in his/her investigation. It is some information or fact to be analyzed by the researcher 13. It mean that data is all information needed by researcher to find the answers of the research problems. There were two kinds of
Ahmad Tanzeh,Metode Penelitian Praktis,(Tulungagung :P3M STAIN, 2004), p.57
http://www.Social Research Method, Net/kb/sampling.php
Nurleila Karniyani, A Paper Presented to the Classroom Discussion: Quantitative Research Methodology,(State university of Malang : Unpublished Paper, 2001),p.l
data needed, they are ordinal data that came from the result of the questionnaire and ordinal data that came from the English test.
Data source is the subject of research from where data can be obtained. Data source can be classified into three sources, that is : Person, Place, and Paper.14 In this research, the quantitative data were taken from the questionnaire and the result of the test. It means that the data source of this research was person.
F. Technique of Collecting the Data and Research Instrument
In this research, the researcher uses Questionnaire, Administering English Scores test to get the needed data.
Arikunto says, “A Questionnaire is a number of written question which is used to obtain information from the respondents about their personality or something they had known”.15
In addition, Margono says, “Questionnaire that” Alat pengumpul informasi dengan cara menyampaikan sejumlah pertanyaan tertulis untuk menjawab secara tertulis pula oleh responden.16
In this research, the Questions in the Questionnaire were written in Indonesian. It was done in order to make easier the respondents answer the questions. The questionnaire consisted of thirty (30) questions in the form of multiple choices. In this part, the researcher asked the students to choose one option that they agree with. It means that the answers must reflect their personality or experience in their real life. The questions would be asked to the students was about their attitude, motivation, also intensity of anxiety in learning English.
The instrument of this research used by the writer in collecting data is a questionnaire which is formulated and designed based on the indicators of the variables of students’ anxiety in learning English. The questionnaire consists of 30 items in the form of Likert’s scale.
Karniyani,A Paper Presented,.p.1
someone’s attitude toward something.Examples of statement alternative are from agreed to disagree, etc.17 here, the writer used always to never. It can be seen in the following illustration.
The Score of Statements
Item Scale Scores
A : always 5
B : sometimes 4
C : seldom 3
D : very seldom 2
E : never 1
1. Students’ anxiety in learning English a. Conceptual Definition
Anxiety is a state of being uneasy, apprehensive, or worried about what may happen which is characterized by a feeling of being powerless to do something.
b. Operational Definition
Anxiety is the scores that the students obtained after they answered the questionnaire items about their anxiety in learning English by the following indicators: Subjective-emotional component, Cognitive component, Physiological responses, and
c. Specification of Instrument
The instrument consists of thirty items about students’ anxiety in learning English that contains ‘four’ indicators, as shown in the following table:
No Indicator Total Item Number
Positive Negative 1 Subjective-emotional
1 7 1,2*,3,4,5*,6*,7,8
2 Cognitive component 1 7 9*,10,11,12*,13,14,15,16
3 Physiological responses - 7 17*,18*,19,20,21*,22*,23
4 Behavioral responses - 7 24*,25,26,27,28,29,30*
* Invalid items, see appendix
Data validity above searched by Microsoft Excel. Valid item instrument above showed that 19 valid items are item can be used at study research, and 11 invalid items of instrument are rejected.
In this paper the writer used the degree of significance of 5%. df = N-2, 40-2= 38;(α) alpha 5% so,“r” table = 0,312
If “r” value of item instrument > “r” table, it means that item instruments showed valid. Then, If “r” value of item instrument < “r” table, it means that item instruments showed invalid.18
2. English Learning Achievement a. Conceptual Definition
English learning achievement is the scores that students obtained in learning English after they have followed teaching-learning process in period of time.
b. Operational Definition
English learning achievement is the scores of English that students obtained after they have followed teaching-learning process in particular of time, and the writer took the score from the result of final test (UAS) of the second semester in the academic year 2012-2013.
According to Saifudin Azwar, research instrument validity questions whether an instrument that will be used has a capability to measure something to be measured and standard minimum validity coefficient is 0.3.19
Based on the scale result of try out validity scale in English anxiety for 40 students in 1st year students of SMP Bhakti Mulya 400 which consists of 30 items, there are 19 valid items and 11 invalid items.The numbers of valid item are: 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 19, 20, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, and 29. The numbers of invalid item are: 2, 5, 6, 9, 12, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, and 30.
4. Reliability Instrument
Reliability defines whether an instrument can measure something to be measured constantly from time to time. Thus, the key words for qualifying requirements are consistency or unchanged.20
To measure reliability in this research, the writer need measuring tool, and measuring tool which is used technique of Alpha Cronbroach. To measure the reliability, the writer used SPSS (Statistical Product for Service Solution) 16 are used.
G. Technique of Data Analysis
In analyzing the data, the writer used the correlation technique, by using: a. The analysis technique of qualitative data
Writer used inductive and deductive method it means that the writer presented the problems specifically then make general conclusion or versa versus these concluded from some general theories.
Syaifudin Azwar,Penyusunan Skala Psikologi, Yogyakarta : Pustaka Pelajar, 2006 p.99-103 20
b. The analysis technique of quantitative data
Arikunto said that “to count the correlation we used statistics”. Statistical technique can be used to count among two or more variables.21
Based on the statement above the writer used statistics method that is using SPSS to count the correlation between students’ anxiety and English achievement in learning English of students of SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan
As Arikunto said “product moment correlation used to decide correlation between two interval phenomena.”22
Pearson’s product moment correlation as follows:
N : Number of Respondents
∑XY : Total Numbers of X multiplied by Y ∑X : Total Score of X
∑Y : Total Score of Y
∑X2 : Total Score of squares of X ∑Y2 : Total Score of squares of Y
6 A. Description of Data
As the writer discussed in the previous chapter, to get the data about students’ anxiety, firstly he did a research by giving a questionnaire to all first year students which number are 109. Then they took 40 randomly as a sample. The questionnaire consists of four answers alternative.
Second, to get the data about students’ anxiety in learning English, he took students’scores from the document of final test (UAS) of second semester of the first year of SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan.
Finally, after the writer analyzed both data to see the correlation
between students’ anxiety in learning English and students’ learning
achievement by applying the formula of Pearson’s product moment correlation.
B. The Finding
1. Students’ Anxiety scores
In this case, students’ anxiety in learning English is an
independent variable (variable X). The following table describes the result of students’ anxiety.1
As shown on the table, we can see the result of
questionnare about students’ anxiety in learning English, from 40 respondents are4459by applying SPSS program, it is showed that the minimum score is 99; the maximum score is 139; the median is 110,00; the mode is 115; and the mean is 111,48.
2. Students’ English scores
Students’ English learning achievement is as dependent variable (variable Y). To know it, the writer took the students’ English score of
first grade students of SMP BHAKTI MULYA 400 Jakarta Selatan, from final test (UAS). The data is described on the following table
From the table, we can see the total score from 40 respondents are 2939 by applying SPSS program, it is showed that the minimum score is 46; the maximum score is 82; the median is 75,00; the mode is 80; and the mean is 73,48.2
C. Data Analysis
Data analysis is the step in the procedure of processing data. Data processing is the step to know the result of the research. To find out whether, students’ anxiety has significant correlation with their English learning
achievement at the first year students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400.
From the calculation of statistic by applying SPSS program, it was known that
rxy = - 0,657. Based on the data collected above, the degree freedom (df) is 40. In this paper the writer used the degree of significance of 5%. df = N-2, 40-2= 38; (α) alpha 5% so, “r” table = 0,312. if the writer compare with table of “r” values at the level of significance, the result is -0,657 < 0,312. According to the explanation about analysis of the result above, the writer can interpret that there is negative correlation between students’ anxiety in learning English and students’ English learning achievement at first year students of SMP BAKTI MULYA 400.
D. The Test of Hypothesis
According to Product Pearson Moment, the value of correlation is between 1 to -1. It means correlation between two variables are strength, but in other way, the value near to 0. It means correlation between two variables is weak. Positive value shows one direction (X up, then Y up), and negative value shows the contrary (X up, then Y down).3
See Appendix 6
73 8030 12100 5329
74 7918 11449 5476
77 8239 11449 5929
74 8510 13225 5476
76 9044 14161 5776
73 9490 16900 5329
76 8360 12100 5776
75 8325 12321 5625
75 9075 14641 5625
76 8284 11881 5776
76 8892 13689 5776
72 8208 12996 5184
71 7810 12100 5041
72 8712 14641 5184
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