52 However, based on the context of the song lyrics, the word “Empty” can be
interpreted as useless. This metaphor is used by Eminem to describe that music, especially rap
means nothing without him. It is because Eminem is the first white rapper who has boldness to reveal his thoughts and feelings honestly. He gets so many
challenges such as refusal from FCC. Even though he creates so many controversies in his music but he still be famous until now. In addition, this
metaphor describes how Eminem has his personal belief to maintain in entertainment.
This metaphor is found in lyrics “I go to TRL, look how many hugs I get
White America, Chorus, Line 2.”According to Longman Dictionary 2011, the word “hug” has its literal meaning as an action to hold someone tightly. However,
the word “hug” is also considered to have connotation or literary meaning. Based on the context, the literary meaning of the word “hug” is the amount of people
who support or admire someone. It is simply to say as fans. Further, Eminem uses this metaphor to illustrate his fans. Basically, when
some people hate you, there are also some people who love you. This situation happens to Eminem. Although some people hate him because of his lyrics which
sound impolite, he still has some people who admire him. It is because his song lyrics are outstanding and meaningful for them.
This sub-title discusses about the relation between the selected theories to the research questions. The discussion related to two research questions which
have formulated before. There are two major themes which will be discussed in this section. They are types of metaphor and its connotation functions in selected
Eminem‟s rap song lyrics. The first discussion is about types of metaphor found in selected
Eminem‟s rap song lyrics. Myers and Sims 1989 explain that there are five kinds of metaphor based on grammatical construction, namely noun metaphor, verb
metaphor, preposition metaphor, adjectival metaphor and adverbial metaphor p. 180. However, based on the analysis result on selected Eminem‟s rap song lyrics,
Eminem does not apply all types of metaphor into his song lyrics. Nevertheless, it is not a problem because Eminem as a singer and a song writer has his own right
to arrange his language into lyrics. Preminger, et al. 1974 explain that every author has their freedom that allowed them to arrange subject matter, grammar or
diction p. 635. In this research, the writer has found 17 metaphors from five types of
metaphor. However, the writer also finds that Eminem does not apply all types into his song lyrics. He only uses four types of metaphor such as noun metaphor,
verb metaphor, adjectival metaphor and adverbial metaphor. It means that Eminem does not apply preposition metaphor into his song lyrics. Further, it is
true that Eminem used preposition to arrange his lyrics‟ grammar but it does not
54 consider as metaphor or dead metaphor. Preminger, et al 1974 say that dead
metaphor is metaphor that loses its original freshness p. 186. In other word, the metaphor does not have its literally meaning. It is because it‟s close to the original
meaning. The dominant metaphor in selected Eminem‟s rap song lyrics is verb
metaphor. It is because Eminem‟s song lyrics describe some actions that he has
done before. Myers and Simms 1989 add that verb metaphor is the most highly metaphor because it fuses together a description and an action p. 181. The action
in Eminem‟s song lyrics such as struck a chord, buy, squirt of piss, broke their neck
and others. Further, Eminem is well-known with his language which sounds rude. It makes some people judge his song lyrics are controversial. Nevertheless,
he tries to express his action and language through metaphor in order to make his language sounds nicely.
In addition, every song lyric has different metaphor based on its situations and themes. The first song isWhite America which tells about freedom of speech
in America. In this song, the writer has found two types of metaphor, such as: 2 noun metaphors and 3 verb metaphors. The noun metaphors are “derringer
aimed” and hug. Then, the verb metaphors are struck a chord, broke their neck, and squirt of piss. Those metaphors are used to describe about freedom of speech
and how Eminem get that. Further, the dictions of metaphor illustrate a struggle to get something.
Next, the second song is Superman which tells about Eminem‟s perception
about girls. In this song, the writer only found two types of metaphor, such as:
55 Verb metaphor and adjectival metaphor. The verb metaphor is “buy” and the
adjectival metaphor is “plain old.” The diction of metaphor illustrate about the
appearance of girls based on Eminem‟s perception. Then, the third song is Without Me
. This song tells about Eminem‟s attendance in entertainment, especially in music industry. In this metaphor there are three types of metaphor,
such as: Verb metaphor, adjectival metaphor and adverbial metaphor. The verb metaphor are “kicking” and “ovulating”; the adjectival metaphor is empty; and the
adverbial metaphor is in the sea . The diction of metaphors illustrates Eminem‟s
attendance in music industry. Further, the last song is
Cleanin‟ Out My Closet. In this metaphor, there are also three types of metaphor such as: Noun metaphor, adjectival metaphor and
adverbial metaphor. The noun metaphors are “Baby,” “closet,” and “skeleton.” The adjectival metaphor is wicked.
Then the adverbial metaphors are “in the morning
” and “in the evening.” Those metaphors illustrate Eminem‟s childhood. Moreover, the second discussion is about the connotation function of
Eminem‟s metaphors. Parera 2004 also explains connotation as denotation meaning which is given certain emotion, value, and character p.
98. Eminem‟s metaphor has applied four kinds meaning of connotation meaning such as
connotation of senses, stereotype, attitude and conformity, and attitude and personal belief. Based on the analysis, Eminem has applied all connotation
function into his metaphors.
56 Eminem uses connotation function of senses in order to build his listener
and reader understands Eminem‟s feelings use their senses. The interpretation meanin
g of Eminem‟s metaphors are seen as positive value by the writer. The metaphors are meaningful because it contains connotation meaning function
which need to be understood. Every metaphor has their connotation meaning as well as message which has already explained in the previous sub-chapter. The
meanings and the messages are also based on the situation in each selected song lyrics.
There are six metaphors. They belong to function of senses, such as: Struck a chord, squirt of piss, my closet, and skeleton.
Then, connotation function of stereotype is used by Eminem to illustrate a situation based on society‟s
perception. The metaphors which belong to this connotation function are “Fish in the sea
” and “baby.” Eminem also applies connotation function of attitude and conformity. This function is formed through Eminem‟s cultures and experiences.
The metaphors are “broke their neck” and “Kicking ass in the morning.” Finally, the last connotation function is function of attitude and personal
belief. Eminem uses this function to describe his personal to his reader and listener. This function has large amount of metaphor because it illustrates
Eminem‟s personal and attitude. The metaphors are “derringer aimed,” “plain old,” “ovulating,” “kissing,” “Taking name in the evening,” “empty,” and
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS
This chapter presents conclusions, implications, and suggestions of the research. The conclusion summarizes the major findings in the research and its
limitation. The implication provides some ideas of the research result which are related to education in general. Then, the suggestion is regarding to the result of
the study for the future research.
The writer comes to the conclusion of this study which is used to summarize the answers of research questions. Since there are two research
questions, so the conclusion is divided into two parts. The first conclusion is the answer for the first
research question on metaphor in Eminem‟s song lyrics. Then, the second conclusion is the answer for the second research question about the
function of connotation meaning found in Eminem‟s song lyrics. Based on the research, there are 17 metaphors found on the four selected
Eminem‟s rap song lyrics. They are 5 metaphors of White America, 2 metaphors of Superman, 4 metaphors of Without Me and 6 metaphors of
Cleanin‟ Out My Closet.
Those metaphors are found based on some theories which are applied on this research.