10 discourse should be delimited with at least some precision. They may be different
kinds of subjects A indeed, e.g.: thing and its properties, a situation and its causes and effects, a series of events and the relations between them, thoughts,
feelings, wishes and wants. Moreover, the subject does not need to exist in reality. A is not implied exist in the strict sense of word. Then, W is the last part of
utterance which affect A. The second condition is there are some effects of using W. Not only A
which has descriptive meaning, but the W too. The words like „or‟, „and‟, „not‟, thus‟, „rather‟, „various‟, „very‟ and the copula „to be‟ are not assumed that they
can be used metaphorically. However, there is an exception for the metaphor in this sentence “Man is a wolf” and “He is pig”. It is because they are considered to
be metaphorical. Further, the meaning of W must clash with the conception of A. Here, W is used to describe or indicate something based on semantic conventions.
The third or the last condition that is W not only depends with the A ‟s
concept but also has been worked based on the context. The role play by W in the utterance will determine the nature of W
‟s contribution to the exposition of the subject-matter A
. Evidently this role of W „S can make clear A‟s parts, elements or aspects.
2. Types of Metaphor based on Grammatical Construction
Myers and Simms 1989 explain that there are five types of metaphor that can be understood by the reader. The types are based on the grammatical
11 construction such as: Noun metaphor, verb metaphor, preposition metaphor,
adjectival metaphor, and adverbial metaphor pp. 180-182.
a. Noun Metaphor
The noun metaphor is one of the most primitive types of metaphor especially in compound noun. The simple noun metaphors can be draw through, “a duck as a
water- bird‟, a watermelon as drink-fruit,‟ and a radish as „cry-hurt-food.”
Although the noun metaphor may seem simple in terms of its explicitness of expression, it is also complex because of the resonance or multiple attributes that
is contains. For example “my mother is a flower,” is the simplest kind of metaphorical noun substitution. Hence we are also implying free-floating
associations of weather, landscape, temperament, emotional relationship, and temporal and spiritual time dimensions.
In addition, noun metaphor fuses together with a description and a thing. Therefore, it is also important to discuss the choice of verbs that link the two
terms of a simple noun metaphor. The use of linking verb copula “to be” in any of its forms, we will set up a very direct but static form of replacement and
identity. As an example, the noun metaphor “God is our father,” show a direct
identity without any sense of process, transformation, or development. In addition, the verbs such as “create,” „become,” “turn,” and „make” accomplish the same
thing as the verb „to be.”