The Elements of Cooperative Learning

h. Each group member should be encouraged to feel responsible for participating and for learning. i. Teachers not only teach language but also teach cooperation as well as. Since social skills involve the use language, cooperative learning teaches language for both academic and social purposes. 34 The successes of Cooperative Learning crucially depend and organize on group work. This requires a structured program of learning carefully designed so that learners interact with each other and motivate to increase each other’s learning. Olsen and Kagan propose the following key element of successful group- based learning in Cooperative Learning: a. Positive interdependence b. Group formation c. Individual accountability d. Social skills e. Structuring and structures. 35 Based on the principles of cooperative learning above, the writer concludes that when students have not been taught how to works with others, teachers should not expect to be able to put them together in groups and ask them work together effectively but teachers should consider skills of students. Teachers have to understand that students need to be taught interpersonal and small group learning skills in order to students can adapt with other students.

5. Types of Cooperative Learning

Johnson et al., 1994:4-5 describe three types of cooperative learning groups: a. Formal cooperative learning groups. These last from one class period several weeks. These are established for a specific task and involve students working together to achieve learning goals. 34 Diane Larsen Freeman, Technique and Principles in Language Teaching, New York: Oxford University Press,2000, p.167-168 35 Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,2001 , p.196 b. Informal cooperative learning groups. These are ad-hoc groups that last from a few minutes to a class period and are used to focus student attention or facilitate learning during direct teaching. c. Cooperative base groups. These are long term, lasting for at least a year and consist of heterogeneous learning groups with stable membership which primary purpose is to allow members to give each other to support, to help, encouragement, and assistance they need to succeed academically. 36

6. Technique of Cooperative Learning

There are some techniques of cooperative learning namely; Student Team Achievement Division STAD, Cooperative integrated Reading and Composition CIRC, Team Assisted Individualization TAI, Teams Games Tournament TGT, Learning Together, Jigsaw, Group Investigation. 37 According Jeanne M.Stone there are steps of cooperative learning namely: a. Brainstorming b. Corner c. Find someone who d. Formation e. Line-ups f. Linkages g. Mix- freeze- group h. Numbered head together i. Round robin j. Pairs- check k. Rally table l. Roundtable m. Same different 38 36 Jack C.Richard and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approach and Methods…., p.196 37 Robert E. Slavin, Cooperative Learning;theory, research and practice, New Jersey Prentice Hall,1995,2 nd ed P.5-12 38 Jeanne M, Stone, Cooperative Learning Reading Activities, Kagan Publishing,2000 p.44

7. Roles in Cooperative Learning

Cooperative learning strategy might not be familiar to many teachers and students. The roles of the teacher, the learner and the instructional material are different in cooperative learning than they were in traditional classroom. a. Learners roles The primary role if the learners are members of a group is that they must work collaboratively on task with other group members. Learners have to work teamwork skills. Learners is also director of their own learning, is viewed as complication of lifelong, learning skills. Thus, learning is something that requires students’ direct and active involvement and participation. Pair grouping is the most typical cooperative language learning format, ensuring the maximum amount of time both learners spend engaged on learning tasks. Pair tasks in which learners alternate roles involve partner in the role of tutors, checkers, recorder, and information sharers. b. Teachers role The role of the teacher in cooperative language learning differs considerably from the role of teachers in tradition teacher- centered lesson. The teacher has to create a highly structured and well-organized learning environment in the classroom, setting goals, planning and structuring tasks, establishing the physical arrangement of the classroom, assigning students to group and roles, and selecting material and time. An important role for the teacher is that of facilitator of learning. In his or her as a facilitator, the teacher must move around the class help students and groups. According to Harel as quoted in Jack C.Ricahrd’s book that during this time the teachers interacts, teaches, refocuses, questions, clarifies, supports, expands, celebrate, and empathizes. Facilitators are giving feedback, redirecting the group with questions, encouraging the group to solve its own problems, extending activity, encouraging thinking, managing conflict, observing students, and supplying resources. Moreover, Harel pointed out that teachers speak less than in teacher-centered classes.

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