1. Definition of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is one the language components; it supports the teaching and learning of the four skills. In learning language, vocabulary plays a very important
role. How can students understand what they listen, reads or writes if students do not understand any word?
Vocabulary is very important in English teaching and learning. If the learner do not know the meaning of word, they will have difficulty in
understanding what they see, read, and learn. Their vocabulary will increase if they read more word. This reason makes vocabulary imortant; a bad mastery of
vocabulary will cause bad understanding of the text. Vocabulary is a core component of language proficiency and provides
much of the basic for how well learners speak, listen, read and write.
According to A.S Hornby, Vocabulary is all the words that a person knows or uses, the
words that people use when they talking about particular subject; and also a list of words with their meaning, especially in a book for learning a foreign language.
While Harimurti kridalaksana says, “kosakata adalah komponen bahasa
yang memuat informasi tentang makna dan penggunaan kata dalam suatu bahasa.”vocabulary is a component of a language that maintains all information
about meaning and using words in a language.
According to Merriam Webster’s ninth collegiate dictionary, vocabulary
is: a A list or collection of word and often phrases, abbreviation inflectional
form, etc. usually arranged as in alphabetical order and defined or otherwise identified as in a dictionary of glossary.
Jack C. Richard and Willy A.Renandya, ed, Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,2002,p.255
A.S.Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learne’s Dictionary of International students ,
London;Oxford University Press,2000p.1506
Harimukti Kridalaksana, kamus Linguistik, jakarta; PT gramedia Pustaka utama, 1993 p.127
b An interrelated group of non-verbal symbols, signs, gestures, etc. used for communication or expression in particular art, skill, etc.
Hatch and Brown define vocabulary as a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of words that individual speakers of language
According to D Houghton, the vocabulary, the main innovation, was presented after the students had begun to make regular use of a text book. Though
the entries are constructed on linguistic principles, the main intention of the vocabulary is to give students help in understanding the most basic accounting
terms, ideas and practices.
From the statements above, the writer concludes that vocabulary is one of the most important aspects of communication especially in foreign using words in
a language with rules combining them to make up a language. Also, vocabulary is a list or a stock of words, phrases, signs, codes or rules of the world, which can be
defined and identified.
2. Kinds of Vocabulary
Vocabulary has large area to discuss, especially in term of kinds. Whatever their nations the point are still same.
According to Gorell and Laird, Almost everyone has at least four basic vocabularies. First, he uses a relatively small number of words which may be
called as the speaking vocabulary . It includes words which come to the speaker’s
tongue without his thinking much about them. A dull person is likely to use only a
Meriam Webster’s Ninth new collegiate dictionary., America: Meriam Webster’s, inc.1984,p.1494
Evelyn Hatch and Cheryl Brown, Vocabulary, Semantic and language Education, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1995, p.1
Ellyzabeth Smyth, ELT 106 Team Teaching in ESP London: British Council , 1980 ,p. 27