Significance of the Study

Positive task orientation - the learner is willing to tackle tasks and challenges and has confidence in his or her success. b Ego involvement – means the learner finds it important to success in learning in order to maintain and promote his or her own positive self-image. c Need for achievement, which means the learner has a need to achieve, to overcome difficulties and succeed in what he or she sets out to do. d High aspiration - the learner is ambitious, goes for demanding challenges high proficiency, top grades. e Goal orientation - means that the learner is very aware of the goals of learning or learning activities, and directs his efforts towards achieving them. f Perseverance - means the learner very consistently invests a high level of effort in learning and is not discouraged by setbacks or apparent lack of progress. g Tolerance of ambiguity - means that the learner consistently invests a high level to effort in situation involving a temporary lack of understanding on confusion; he can live with this patiently and in the confidence that understanding will be coming later. 9 According to Penny Ur’s description above, it gets the interpretation through the typical of characteristics for successful students. Good aspiration will bring the learners eagerness to have a goal orientation that will impact the responsibility to complete the tasks, so it will get the need to be achieved because of that the effort. The learners are able to set strong ambitions to become confidence and patience in achieving the successful in learning process. A simple but accurate definition of motivation is not easy. It must be able to include terms that refer to such diverse states as desires, wishes, plans, goals, intents, impulses, and purposes. Some of these states imply a deliberate and calculated process involving reasons, whereas others convey a flavor of spontaneity. And then, Fritz Heider emphasized that 9 Ibid.,p. 275 “the process by which makes these interpretations or attributions causal motivation.” 10

2. Kinds of Motivation

Motivation can be divided into two kinds: intrinsic motivation the urge to encourage in the learning activity for its own sake and extrinsic motivation motivation that is derived from external incentives. Both of these have important roles to play in classroom motivation, and both are at least partially accessible to teacher influence. 11 It means that there should be synchronization and a balance between the inner and outer growth.

a. Intrinsic of motivation

According to Jeremy Harmer, intrinsic motivation depends on what takes place in the classroom. 12 And then, John W. Santrock said that intrinsic motivation is based on internal factors, such as self- determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort, which indicate that the internal factors themselves influence the learner. 13 Richard I. Arends stated that intrinsic motivation causes people to act in a certain way because it brings personal satisfaction. 14 Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White said that intrinsic motivation is the type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner. 15 The statements, it can be understood that intrinsic motivation is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or desire for an obvious external reward. Stephanie Gerding says that everyone is motivated by personal desires, 10 Jung, John. Understanding Human Motivation; A Cognitive Approach. New York: California State University, Long Beach, 1978, p. 4-5. 11 Penny Ur, 1996, op, cit., p.276 12 Jeremy Harmer, 1991, op, cit., p.3 13 John W. Santrock, Psychology, New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2005, Updated 7 th Edition, p. 428 14 Richard I. Arends, Learning to Teach, New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2007 7 th Edition, p. 138 15 Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White, Psychology 2 nd Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2009, 2 nd Edition, p.358