Intrinsic of motivation Kinds of Motivation

Extrinsic Motivation is to encourage in an activity as a means to an end. Students will be inspired to study when they can pass their goals and successful in desirable outcomes such as a reward, teacher praise, friends praise, or avoidance of punishment. It directly will make them happy in doing their study. Extrinsically, motivated behaviors are carried out in anticipation or a reward from outside and beyond itself. Some factors come from extrinsic motivation; 1 Teacher, the relationship between teachers and pupils is of fundamental importance to effective teaching. 18 2 Parent, the most important experience for parents and their newborn babies is that of bonding – boding is so important that when the infant cannot bond to a person because there is no person available, the infant will bond to an animal or even to an object. 19 3 Social, social facilitation can reflect a coactions effect, which is a form of modeling that occurs when performance is motivated as a result of other performing the same action, or an audience effect that reflects the energizing of one’s behavior due to the presence of observers. 20 Based on the definition above, motivation is the power comes also from outside of students. That it will influence students to motor their life education in achieving a good value of learning and a good result of achievement itself. Many experts have defined the extrinsic motivation differently, but it has the same meaning and purpose. Extrinsic motivation is caused by any number or outside factors, for example, the need to pass exam, the hope for financial reword or the possibility of future travel. Another important point to be kept in mind is that ultimate purpose of some extrinsic motivations is to influence and enhance the intrinsic ones that come from inside of the students. 18 Chris Keryacou, Effective Teaching in the Schools – Theory and Practice, London: Stanley Tornes, 2009, p. 101 19 Margaret Paul, Inner Bonding – Becoming a Loving Adult to Your Inner Child, New York: HapperCollins Publisher, 1992 p. 80 20 Paul R. Pintrich, Motivation in Education – Theory, Research, and Application, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996, p. 187

B. Achievement

Achievement motivation is the expectancy of finding satisfaction in mastering challenging performances. 21 It means that students’ satisfaction can be achieved when the result after facing challenging by doing it, is fully attained. In all types of classroom, teacher talk is important, and has been extensively researched and documented. In language classrooms it is particularly important because the medium is the message. The modification which teachers make to their language, questions they ask, feedback they provide and the types of instructions and explanations they provide can all have an important bearing, not only on the effective management of the classroom, but also on the acquisition by learners of the target language. 22 The information above is a mutual relationship with teachers and students to get messages in dealing with the instructions and teacher should be able to support the students with their curiosity without any judgment. Schunk showed that difficult goals raised children’s academic motivation more than easier goals and persuasive informatio n “you can work 25 problems.” Increased self-efficacy more than social comparative information, and the difficult goals plus persuasive information led to the highest achievement. 23 Sometimes comparative information can be a good way to stimuli students ’ motivation to make a goal easier. Some students will feel excited to reach more of achievement in the class when teacher can give them a good way of comparative information. Sometimes, some students will feel down when they cannot be like their competitor in the class. Therefore, the stimulus can be created well; they will have the eagerness to do what the good students have done. 21 Morris L. Bigge and Maurice P. Hunt, Psychological foundations of Education – An Introduction to Human Motivation, Development, and Learning, New York: Harper and Row, 1980, 3 rd Edition, p. 96 22 David Nunan, Language Teaching Methodology, London: Prentice Hall International, 1991, p. 7 23 Dale H. Schunk, Motivation in Education – Theory, Research, and Applications, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2008, 3 rd Edition, p. 153