The Understanding of Motivation

“the process by which makes these interpretations or attributions causal motivation.” 10

2. Kinds of Motivation

Motivation can be divided into two kinds: intrinsic motivation the urge to encourage in the learning activity for its own sake and extrinsic motivation motivation that is derived from external incentives. Both of these have important roles to play in classroom motivation, and both are at least partially accessible to teacher influence. 11 It means that there should be synchronization and a balance between the inner and outer growth.

a. Intrinsic of motivation

According to Jeremy Harmer, intrinsic motivation depends on what takes place in the classroom. 12 And then, John W. Santrock said that intrinsic motivation is based on internal factors, such as self- determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort, which indicate that the internal factors themselves influence the learner. 13 Richard I. Arends stated that intrinsic motivation causes people to act in a certain way because it brings personal satisfaction. 14 Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White said that intrinsic motivation is the type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner. 15 The statements, it can be understood that intrinsic motivation is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself, and exists within the individual rather than relying on external pressures or desire for an obvious external reward. Stephanie Gerding says that everyone is motivated by personal desires, 10 Jung, John. Understanding Human Motivation; A Cognitive Approach. New York: California State University, Long Beach, 1978, p. 4-5. 11 Penny Ur, 1996, op, cit., p.276 12 Jeremy Harmer, 1991, op, cit., p.3 13 John W. Santrock, Psychology, New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2005, Updated 7 th Edition, p. 428 14 Richard I. Arends, Learning to Teach, New York: Mc-Graw Hill, 2007 7 th Edition, p. 138 15 Saundra K. Ciccarelli J. Noland White, Psychology 2 nd Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2009, 2 nd Edition, p.358 interests, and goals. Besides that, intrinsic motivation occurs when someone is internally motivated to do something because it brings him pleasure, he views it as important, or he considers what he is learning morally significant. This would include an internal desire to learn, such as in lifelong learning, and also feeling of obligation, needs for satisfaction or accomplishment, or even interest related to hobbies. 16 It can be understood that desires, interests, goals, and hobbies related to interests are the characteristic of intrinsic of motivation which are related to the personal development in learning process, specifically English learning at school.

b. Extrinsic Motivations

Penny Ur states that extrinsic motivation is that which derives from the influence of some kind of external incentive, as distinct from the wish to learn for its own case or interest in tasks. Penny Ur named five factors that can be directly influenced by teachers: 1 Sources and its rewards, this is perhaps the single most important feature in rising extrinsic learners who succeeded in the past. When the student is successful at certain task, he will be likely to try it again and become more confident. In the motivation process, the role of a teacher toward this aspect is to make learners aware of their accomplishments and appraised for their work and effort. They can be presented by good grades, appraisals in front of peers, or external awards. 2 Failure and it penalties, failure is not just a matter of wrong answer, learner should be aware that they are failing when they have done significantly than they could have, because they are making unsatisfactory progress or not taking action. Failure in any sense is generally regarded as something to be avoided, just as success in something to be sought. But this should be taken too far. For one thing, success cases its 16 Stephanie Gerding, The Accidental Technology Trainer – A Guide for Libraries, New Jersey: Information Today, Inc., 2007, p. 86 sweetness if it is too easily attained and if there is no real possibility or experiences of failure. 3 Authoritative demand, Learners are often led by teacher pressure. They may be willing to invest effort in tasks simply because they are told to recognize tea chers’ authority and right for making demands, and trust their judgment. Even if authoritative demands need to be exercised more on the younger learners, older learners and adults do require them, especially clear demands, as well. Authoritative demands can be, of course, over-used or misused, of learners only to do things with obedience, and without any awareness of objectives and result or involvement in decisions. Therefore, authority plays a vital role to maintain discipline among students at a certain level and can be substituted with other creative activities to create their intrinsic motivations. 4 Test, Tests may have high motivational impact on some learners. The motivating power of the test appears clear to those that know they are going to be tested on a specific material next week and when it gets closer, they are motivated to study more carefully. However, tests can also be motivating because they cause stress on the students about their results. Therefore, teachers need to be aware of both of their motivating and negative impacts so as to stress on the importance of the tests as part of the learning process. Students should be kept well informed that language learning is for practical use and tests are just evaluation tools to measure their progresses. 5 Competition, Some learners will often be motivated to give their best not for the sake of the learning itself but in order to be at their opponent in a competition. While it can be a very good motivation to some extent, competition can cause less cooperation and teamwork among classmates. Therefore, some experts claimed that it is advisable to use group competitions in replacement of individual ones in a learning environment. 17 17 Penny Ur, 1996, op, cit., p.277 Extrinsic Motivation is to encourage in an activity as a means to an end. Students will be inspired to study when they can pass their goals and successful in desirable outcomes such as a reward, teacher praise, friends praise, or avoidance of punishment. It directly will make them happy in doing their study. Extrinsically, motivated behaviors are carried out in anticipation or a reward from outside and beyond itself. Some factors come from extrinsic motivation; 1 Teacher, the relationship between teachers and pupils is of fundamental importance to effective teaching. 18 2 Parent, the most important experience for parents and their newborn babies is that of bonding – boding is so important that when the infant cannot bond to a person because there is no person available, the infant will bond to an animal or even to an object. 19 3 Social, social facilitation can reflect a coactions effect, which is a form of modeling that occurs when performance is motivated as a result of other performing the same action, or an audience effect that reflects the energizing of one’s behavior due to the presence of observers. 20 Based on the definition above, motivation is the power comes also from outside of students. That it will influence students to motor their life education in achieving a good value of learning and a good result of achievement itself. Many experts have defined the extrinsic motivation differently, but it has the same meaning and purpose. Extrinsic motivation is caused by any number or outside factors, for example, the need to pass exam, the hope for financial reword or the possibility of future travel. Another important point to be kept in mind is that ultimate purpose of some extrinsic motivations is to influence and enhance the intrinsic ones that come from inside of the students. 18 Chris Keryacou, Effective Teaching in the Schools – Theory and Practice, London: Stanley Tornes, 2009, p. 101 19 Margaret Paul, Inner Bonding – Becoming a Loving Adult to Your Inner Child, New York: HapperCollins Publisher, 1992 p. 80 20 Paul R. Pintrich, Motivation in Education – Theory, Research, and Application, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1996, p. 187