Extrinsic Motivations Kinds of Motivation

B. Achievement

Achievement motivation is the expectancy of finding satisfaction in mastering challenging performances. 21 It means that students’ satisfaction can be achieved when the result after facing challenging by doing it, is fully attained. In all types of classroom, teacher talk is important, and has been extensively researched and documented. In language classrooms it is particularly important because the medium is the message. The modification which teachers make to their language, questions they ask, feedback they provide and the types of instructions and explanations they provide can all have an important bearing, not only on the effective management of the classroom, but also on the acquisition by learners of the target language. 22 The information above is a mutual relationship with teachers and students to get messages in dealing with the instructions and teacher should be able to support the students with their curiosity without any judgment. Schunk showed that difficult goals raised children’s academic motivation more than easier goals and persuasive informatio n “you can work 25 problems.” Increased self-efficacy more than social comparative information, and the difficult goals plus persuasive information led to the highest achievement. 23 Sometimes comparative information can be a good way to stimuli students ’ motivation to make a goal easier. Some students will feel excited to reach more of achievement in the class when teacher can give them a good way of comparative information. Sometimes, some students will feel down when they cannot be like their competitor in the class. Therefore, the stimulus can be created well; they will have the eagerness to do what the good students have done. 21 Morris L. Bigge and Maurice P. Hunt, Psychological foundations of Education – An Introduction to Human Motivation, Development, and Learning, New York: Harper and Row, 1980, 3 rd Edition, p. 96 22 David Nunan, Language Teaching Methodology, London: Prentice Hall International, 1991, p. 7 23 Dale H. Schunk, Motivation in Education – Theory, Research, and Applications, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2008, 3 rd Edition, p. 153 Achievement test measures students’ present status with a set of skills. Achievement tests are used to evaluate the effectiveness of instructional program and identify students with learning disabilities. 24 It means that achievement can be modified into a test, in order to know the standard of ability of the students. Peter Airasian stated that a standardized assessment is the one that 1 is designed to be used in many different classrooms and schools and 2 is administered, scored, and interpreted in the same way for all test takers no matter when or where it is given. Commercial achievement tests are usually given each year. They provide information about pupil performance over time and identify strengths and weaknesses. 25 As mentioned by Albert, a teacher needs to be knowledgeable about standardized tests, not only to defend against their misuse, but also to take advantage of the information they can provide. An appropriately selected standardized test can furnish a snapshot of students’ abilities, identifying areas of probable strengths and weaknesses. Based on the statements above, it can be analyzed that test is a good way to know the ability of students in understanding the learning process and standardized test will not only improve their achievement in school area or local area but also prove the ability that students have overseas. So, it can motivate students to achieve more of their knowledge, skills and potentials. Based on a long series of studies, McClelland and Alschuler have concluded that successful decision makers share certain characteristics: They compete with a standard of excellence in mind, they take moderate risks, and they make good use of creating feedback. Sprinthall stated that three characteristics term the achievement syndrome. 26 The experts above also stated that in order to achieve success, students need to be good decision makers. Becoming a decision maker is a big challenge because of the social 24 Albert Oosterhof, Developing and Using Classroom Assessments, New Jersey: Pearson Education 2002, 3 rd Edition, p. 228 25 Peter W. Airasian, Assessment in the Classroom – A Concise Approach, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, 2000, 2 nd Edition, p. 238 26 Norman A. Sprinthall and Richard C. Sprinthall, Educational Psychology – A developmental Approach, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990, 5 th Edition, p. 527 environment forces and some students are of less confidence and not to be brave showing their ability. James E. Twining stated that evaluating your success in learning means judging whether or not you achieved your purpose and are able to retain what you have learned. It is a continuous cycle of self-testing and review. Regular self-testing promotes successful academic performance. 27 Talking about an evaluation, we can see that many kinds of tests are used in the schools today. For teachers, the question of what constitutes a good test is pertinent to the tasks of selecting standardized tests and constructing achievement tests utilizing a wide variety of other evaluative devices. In general, the basic characteristics that need to be considered in either selecting or constructing a test or other evaluative devices are: validity, reliability, objective, and practicality. Achievement motivation is the desire to experience success and to participate in activities in which success is dependent on personal effort and abilities. 28 Achievement and motivation have a positive correlation and are walking together, but it depends on personal effort to achieve the success. One definition of achievement can be found in the Dictionary of Education which is currently undergoing its first revision in over two decades. In this reference, achievement is defined as 1 accomplishment or proficiency of performance in a given skill or body of knowledge; 2 progress in school C. V. Good, 1973, p. 7. Academic achievement is defined as knowledge gained or skills developed in the school subjects, usually designated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers, or by both p. 7. 29 It means that achievement is an indicator about students’ achieving in the class in leaning process. The achievement is commonly designed by scores through English test in the class. Achievement will be accumulated from English learning which has been done by students through a test where is 27 James E. Twining, Strategies for Active Learning, New York: A Division of Simon Schuster, 1991, p. 32 28 Robert E. Slavin, Educational Psychology, New York: A Division of Simon Schuster, 1991, 3 rd Edition, p. 329 29 Gary D. Phye, Handbook of Classroom Assessment Learning, Achievement, and Adjustment, San Diego: Academic Press, 1997, p.4 scored by teacher as an evaluation for both teachers and students what they have done in learning process.

C. Learning

Anita Woolfolk stated that learning occurs when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. 30 And then, George S. Morrison stated that learning refers to the cognitive and behavioral changes that result from experiences. 31 Besides, Jeanne Ellis Ormrod stated that learning as a long term change in mental representations or associations as a result of experience. 32 Ellen Green Wood said that learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior, knowledge, capability, or attitude that is acquired through experience and cannot be attributed to illness, injury, or maturation. 33 Through the statements above, there is new insight that experience creates learning; identically experience is a way to learn something new, from the experience someone can learn something that will change the behavior of him, it can develop his way of behavior and find his needs in doing daily activities because he can develop knowledge, skill and so on. The discussion of each learning approach includes suggestions for specific techniques and methods of teaching to guide teachers in understanding student behavior and in making decision about how to teach. 34 It means that learning is not always about teaching; it is about how to know each other, especially to know students ’ characters. And then, Nelson B. Henry stated that learning is herein seen as far more closely interrelated with the process of living than most among one thought. 35 It is very interesting, 30 Anita Woolfolk, 2004, op, cit., p. 206 31 George S. Morrison, Early Childhood Education Today, New Jersey: Pearson Education, 2009 11 th Edition, p. 113 32 Jeanne Ellis Ormrod, Educational Psychology – Developing Learner, Boston: Pearson Eduction, 2011, 7 th Edition, p. 180 33 Ellen Green Wood, Mastering the World of Psychology, New York: Pearson Education, 2011, P. 137 34 Fredric Linder, Educational Psychology, New York: McGraw Hill Companies, 2004, 19 th Edition, p.73 35 Nelson B. Henry,Philosophies of Education, Chicago: The University Chicago Press, 1942, p. 66