the Effectivenes of total physical response in teaching preposition of place

THE EFFECTIVENES OF TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE IN
TEACHING PREPOSITION OF PLACE
(A Classroom Action Research in the First Year of
MTs. Soebono Mantofani, Jombang, Ciputat)

By
Monarika Novi A.
207014000386

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2014

ABSTRACT

MonarikaNoviAstuti, 2014.Teaching Preposition of Place Through Total Physical Response
(A Classroom Action Research in the Seventh Grade of MTs. Soebono Mantofani Jombang,
Ciputat) Skripsi, English Education Department, Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers’ Training.
Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta.
Advisor

: Dr. Fahriany, M.Pd

Key words

: Preposition of Place, Total Physical Response

This research has a purpose to improve the students’ ability in using
Imperative sentence through Total Physical Response (TPR) in the seventh Grade of MTs.
Soebono Mantofani Jombang, Ciputat 2012/2013 academic year. The subject of this study
consisted of 20 students of VII.1.
This method used in this research was Classroom Action Research (CAR).
The Classroom Action Research design applied in this research was a collaborative classroom
action research. In this case the teacher of MTs. Soebono Mantofani as an observer and
collaborator. The research carried out of two cycles, every cycle consisted of two meetings.
The research was conducted following Kurt Lewin’s Design with the following procedures of
the action research: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The data used in this research
such as: interview, observation, questionnaire and test.
The result of this study, show that there was any significant of students’ ability
in using preposition of place. Most of the students achieved good score at the end of every
cycle. The score of minimum Mastery Criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) of
English lesson was 65 (sixty five). The findings of the research are: First, related to the test,
students’ mean score of posttest in cycle 1 is 61,5 or 35% students who achieved the
minimum Mastery Criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal (KKM) and the post cycle 2 is 71
or 80% students who achieved the Minimum Mastery Criterion-Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal
(KKM). Second, related to observation result showed that student more active and enjoy in
learning preposition of place, the last related to the interview result, the students enthusiastic
in getting material, and had motivation to learn preposition of place/ Total Physical Response
method effective for learning preposition of place, this method can improve students’ ability
in using preposition of place.

ABSTRAK

Monarika Novi Astuti, 2014. Teaching Preposision of Place Through Total Physical Response
(A Classroom Action Research in the Seventh Grade of MTs. Soebono Mantofani Jombang,
Ciputat) Skripsi, Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Tarbiyah dan Pelatihan Guru. Universitas
Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
Advisor: Dr. Fahriany, M.Pd
Kata kunci: Preposition of Place, Total Physical Response
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan siswa dalam menggunakan
kalimat Imperatif melalui Total Physical Response (TPR) di kelas tujuh MTs. Soebono
Mantofani Jombang, Ciputat 2012/2013 tahun akademik. Subjek penelitian ini terdiri dari 20
siswa dari kelas VII.1.
Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK).
Penelitian dilakukan dari dua siklus, setiap siklus terdiri dari dua pertemuan. Penelitian ini
dilakukan menyusul Desain Kurt Lewin dengan prosedur berikut dari penelitian tindakan:
perencanaan, bertindak, observasi, dan refleksi. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini
seperti: wawancara, observasi, dan tes.
Hasil penelitian ini, menunjukkan bahwa ada hasil signifikan kemampuan siswa dalam
menggunakan preposition of place. Sebagian besar siswa mencapai skor yang baik pada akhir
setiap siklus. Rata dari Penguasaan minimum Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal Kriteria-(KKM) dari
pelajaran bahasa Inggris adalah 65 (enam puluh lima). Temuan dari penelitian ini adalah:
Pertama, berkaitan dengan tes, nilai rata-rata siswa dari posttest di siklus 1 adalah 61,5 atau 35%
siswa yang mencapai Penguasaan minimum Kriteria Ketuntasan Minimal Kriteria-(KKM) dan
siklus pasca 2 adalah 71 atau 80% siswa yang mencapai Minimum Penguasaan Kriteria
Ketuntasan Minimal Kriteria-(KKM). Kedua, terkait dengan hasil observasi menunjukkan bahwa
siswa lebih aktif dan menikmati belajar preposition of place, yang terakhir terkait dengan hasil
wawancara, para siswa antusias dalam mendapatkan bahan, dan memiliki motivasi belajar
preposition of place/ Total Physical Response efektif untuk belajar preposisi tempat, metode ini
dapat meningkatkan kemampuan siswa dalam menggunakan preposition of place.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Alhamdulillah, Praise and gratitude be to Allah, Lord of the worlds Who
has given the Mercy and Blessing to the writer, so that this “Skripsi” can be
finished completely. Sholawat and Salambe upon our prophet Muhammad
“Shollahu ‘alaihiwasallam”, his families, companions, and his followers.
The writer would like to express his greatest appreciation, honor, gratitude
and love to her beloved mother who has been a great motivator and inspiration in
every condition, also to her father who has given her many inspirations and
supports and her big family. She thanks to them for their pray, guidance, patience,
and encouragement to motivate the writer to finish her study.
Also, on this occasion, the writer would like to express his gratitude to Mr.
Dr. Fahriany, M.Pd as the writer‟s advisor who had kindly spent his time to give
his valuable advice, guidance, corrections, and suggestions in composing this
“Skripsi.”
Furthermore, her greatest gratitude also goes to:
1. All lecturers of English Education Department, for teaching the precious
knowledge, sharing the values of life and giving the unforgettable study
experiences.
2. Mr. Drs. Syauki, M. Pd., as the chairman of English Education
Department.
3. Mr. Zaharil Anasy, M. Hum., as the Secretary of English Education
Department. Also, her thanks is given to the staffs of English Education
Department
4. Mrs. Nurlena Rifa‟i, M.A., Ph.D., the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and
Teachers Training.
5. My parents, who always give me spirit to finish my study
6. Mr. Suhendro Tri Anggono as a Staff of Personnel Division UIN Syariff
Hidayatullah Jakarta and also as her uncle who always take care of her and
about my study

7. Her friends in Department of English Education especially PBI Non
Regular 2007
Finally, the writer realizes that this “Skripsi” is still far from being perfect.
Constructive criticism and suggestion would be welcomed to make it better. I
hope that this Skripsi could be useful to other people, especially to people in
education area.

Jakarta, August 27th, 2014

Monarika Novi Astuti

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ..............................................................................................................................

i

ABSTRAK ................................................................................................................................

ii

ACKNOWLEDGMENT .........................................................................................................

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................

iv

LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................. vii
LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................... viii
LIST OF APPENDICES .........................................................................................................

CHAPTER I

ix

: INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study .......................................................................

1

B. Identification Area and Research Focus ................................................

2

C. Scope and Limitation of the Study.........................................................

2

D. Formulation of the Problem ...................................................................

2

E. Purpose of the Result .............................................................................

2

CHAPTER II : THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
A. Preposition of Place ...............................................................................

4

1. Concept of Preposition .....................................................................

4

2. Types of Preposition ........................................................................

4

3. Use of Preposition ............................................................................

7

4. Function of Preposition ....................................................................

8

B. Total Physical Response
1. Background of Total Physical Response .........................................

8

2. Characteristic of Total Physical Response .......................................

9

3. Design of Total Physical Response.................................................. 10
4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Total Physical Response ........... 12
5. Teaching Preposition of Place through Total Physical Response .... 13

iv

CHAPTER III

: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A. Place and Time of the Research ............................................................. 16
B. Research Method and Design ................................................................ 16
C. Population and Sample of the Research................................................. 20
D. Technique of Collecting Data ................................................................ 20
E. Technique of Data Analysis ................................................................... 22
F. Validity .................................................................................................. 24

CHAPTER IV

: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
A. Data Description ................................................................................. 25
Before Implementing the Action ........................................................ 25
a. Result of Pre Interview ................................................................. 25
b. Result of Pre Observation ............................................................. 26
c. Result of Pre Questionnaire .......................................................... 27
d. Result of Pretest ............................................................................ 29
e. Result of Posttest 1........................................................................ 30
f. Result of Posttest 2........................................................................ 33
B. Interpretation of the Data .................................................................... 35
a. Data of Interview .......................................................................... 35
b. Data of Questionnaire ................................................................... 36
c. Data of Test ................................................................................... 36
C. Findings after Implementing the Data ................................................ 36
a. Result of Pre Interview ................................................................. 36
b. Result of Post Questionnaire ......................................................... 37

CHAPTER V : CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion .......................................................................................... 38
B. Suggestion ........................................................................................... 39

v

Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………42
Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………. 44

vi

LIST OF FIGURES

Figures 3.1

: Curt Lewins’ CAR Design ...................................................................... 16

Figures 3.2

: Writer Design of Classroom Action Research Procedure Adopted
from Kurt Lewins’ Design ......................................................................... 19

0

vii

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1

: The Interpretation of Students Questionnaire ......................................... 21

Table 4.1

: The Result of Pre Questionnaire ............................................................. 27

Table 4.2

: The Data of the Students’ Pretest ............................................................ 29

Table 4.3

: The Data of the Students’ Posttest 1 ....................................................... 31

Table 4.4

: The Data of the Student’s Posttest 2 ....................................................... 33

viii

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1

: Interview for the English Teacher before Implementing the Action ...... 41

Appendix 2

: The Result of Interview before implemented Action Research .............. 42

Appendix 3

: Interview for the English Teacher after Classroom Action Research ..... 44

Appendix 4

: The Result of Interview for the English Teacher after Classroom action
Research .................................................................................................. 45

Appendix 5

: Soal Pretest .............................................................................................. 47

Appendix 6

: Soal Posttest 1 ......................................................................................... 48

Appendix 7

: Soal Posttest 2 ......................................................................................... 49

Appendix 8

: Table 3.1 The Interpretation of Students’ Questionnaire ........................ 50

Appendix 9

: Table 4.1 The Result of Pre Questionnaires ............................................ 51

Appendix 10

: Table 4.2 The Data of Students Pretest ................................................... 52

Appendix 11

: Table 4.3 The Result of Students in Posttest 1........................................ 54

Appendix 12

: Table 4.4 The Result of Students in Posttest 2........................................ 56

ix

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This Chapter presents and discusses background of the study,
identification area and research focus, the scope and limitation of the study,
formulation of the problem and purpose of the result research.

A. Background of the Study
In Indonesia, English is taught from junior high school to university level.
It based on the ministry of

National Education decree no: 372/2003 dates December 12, 2003 stated that
“English becomes the first foreign languages that need to be taught in
Indonesia starting from primary school as local content, in secondary school
as a compulsory subject and in university as a complementary subject.”1

All of these are intended to prepare Indonesian human resources in facing
global challenge.
Based on the writer‟s experience in teaching preposition of place, the writers
used Total Physical Response method and it works in teaching Preposition of
Place. Because in Total Physical response method, it can be said that emphasizes
relation between speech and what the learners act. Teacher gives order, and then
the learners do the action.
There are four language skills that have to be mastered by the students to
learn English subject. The four language skills are listening speaking, reading and
writing. Other elements of language such as structure, vocabulary, spelling and
pronunciation are presented merely as additional items to support the language
skills mentioned above.

1

Ministry of National Education decree no: 327/2003, December 12, (Jakarta:2003)

1

2

According to the writer‟s experience in MTs. Soebono Mantofani
Jombang, Ciputat as the assistance of the English teacher, most of the teachers
used traditional method called Grammar Translation Method in teaching structure.
Through Grammar Translation Method, the teachers only translate the text, give
the rule of the structure and then ask the students to do some exercise using
instruction. These steps only give a little comprehension.
Based on the background above, the writer wants to propose a method that
can improve the student‟s ability to learn the target language. The propose method
is using Total Physical response (TPR) in teaching preposition. Because according
to the researchers, the students will be easier to remember the material when the
learning process is accompanied by physical responses
According to the Author the goal of teaching preposition of place through
TPR for the beginning level is to facilitate students to remember the material
presented by action in accordance to the teacher commands.

B. Identification Area and Research Focus
This research focused on the first grade of MTs. Soebono Mantofani
Jombang, Ciputat and 1st semester of the 2011/2012 academic year.

C. Scope and Limitation of The Study
To avoid misunderstanding and to clarify the problem, the writer limits the
problem in teaching Preposition of Place by using Total Physical Response
Method compared to Grammar Translation Method in the first grade students of
“MTs. Soebono Mantofani Jombang, Ciputat”.
D. Formulation of the Problem
Based on the background of study the writer formulates the research
problem on this paper: “How Total Physical Response improves students‟ ability
in preposition of place in the seventh grade students of MTs. Soebono Mantofani,
Ciputat”?

3

E. Purpose of the Research
The findings (result) of the study are expected to provide useful
information about the affect of Total Physical Response method in students‟
preposition of place mastery at MTs. Soebono Mantofani Jombang, Ciputat. It is
expected that these findings can contribute to four groups of people; they are the
school principle, the teacher, the students and the further more researcher.
The findings of this research is expected to be useful input for the school
principal related to the English teaching learning process in the classroom. For
the teacher the findings of this research are expected to be able to enrich the
teachers‟ knowledge in terms of teaching English. As the teacher of teaching
learning activity, students can encourage themselves in mastery preposition of
place, so that they can use it in their communication.

CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter presents and discusses definition of preposition, types of
preposition, the function of preposition, the general picture of preposition, the
concept of total physical response, the principal of total physical response, the
characteristic of total physical response, design of total physical response,
advantages and disadvantages of total physical response, teaching preposition of
place through total physical response.

A. Preposition of Place
1. Concept of Preposition
Hurford stated “Preposition is a (typically small) word that occurs
before a noun phrase, making another phrase (a prepositional phrase) with it.
The term itself reflects the grammatical place of prepositions, „positioned
before‟ noun phrase”.1
Harmer said in his book “How to teach English” that Preposition is a
word (or group of word) which is used to show the way which other words are
connected.2
According to Sidney and Randolph in their book “Student’s Grammar
of the English language”, Prepositions are a closed class of items connecting
two units in a sentence and specifying a relationship between them.3
The researcher said that prepositions are words that show the
relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word or element in
the rest of the sentence.

James R. Hurford, Grammar A student’s guide, (Cambridge University press,1994), p.190.
Jeremy Harmer, How to Teach English, (Person Educational Limited, 2007), p. 37.
3
Sidney Greenbaum and Randolph Qiurk, Student’s Grammar of English Language, (Pearson
Education Limited, 1990), p. 188.
1

2

4

5

2.

Types of Preposition
There are many kinds of prepositions. Some of them are the

simplest form. Many of them are monosyllabic such as in at, up, to, by, of,
out, with, from, down, over, into, after, before, since, behind, above, etc.
According to Mahmud in his book English for Muslim University Students
there are types of preposition as follows:
1) Preposition of Location
The common preposition used to indicate location or places are:


In

being surrounded by something
E.g. In the house



At

presence, around
E.g. at the house



On

in contact with the surface of another object
E.g. On the table



Across

Opposite from
E.g. across the street



Around

near or all sides of
E.g. around the house



Between

in the space separating two things
E.g. Mona is shitting between Mom and Dad



Among

with or surrounded by
E.g. Mona was standing among the boys



Throughout

in all parts, all over
E.g. Mona looked for her book throughout the room



Over/above

higher than/ up in perpendicular direction from
E.g. The sky is over (above) our head




Under/

lower than, down in perpendicular direction from

Beneath

E.g. Under the table

Below

at the point lower than

6

E.g. below the sea level4
2) Preposition showing place or Position
There are three kinds of prepositions that show the place or position,
there are:
a. The point it self
In or inside

Hang your coat in the closet (In gives the area of
something enclosed-a container, a drawer, a
building)
There was no one inside in the house. (Inside
emphasizes the containment)

On

put the dishes on the table (on indicates the surface
of something- a floor, a wall, a ceiling)
He‟s standing on top of the desk. (On top of
emphasizes the uppermost horizontal surface. It is
used with an object that has some height)
I‟m at school. (At refers to general vicinity. Were

At

presence at the place is indicated).
At is also used for addresses with streets numbers –
He lives at 200 Park Avenue (but he lives on Park
Avenue)
b. Higher or lower than a point
1) Higher
Over

The plane flew over the mountains. (Over is felt to
be generally higher than a point).

Above

He lives on the floor above us (above is felt to be
directly higher than a point).
This distinction between over and above is not
always carefully observed.

2) Lower
4

Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, English for Muslim University Students, (Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa dan Budaya
Universitas Islam Negeri, 2003), p. 89

7

Under

A Subway runs under this street. (Under is felt to be
generally lower than a point)

Underneath

He swept the dirt under (Neath) the rug.
(Underneath expresses the idea of closed under,
especially so as to be hidden).

Beneath

Beneath a tree lay a dog fast asleep. (Beneath
express the idea of directly under, with some space
between).

Below

He lives on the floor below us. (Below is felt to be
directly lower than a point). The

distinction

between under and below is not always carefully
maintained.
3) Neighboring the point
Near

He lives near the University. (Near has the most
general meaning of neighboring a point).

Next to

the theater is right next to the post office (with
nothing else between them).

Alongside

the tug pulled up alongside the tanker. (Adjoining
persons or things considered as lined up or side by
side).

Beside

he sat beside his wife during the party. (On each
sides of person or thing that has two sides).

Between

He sat between his two sons. (On each sides of a
person or thing that has two sides) if more than two
persons or things are positioned around a point.

Opposites

the museum is just opposite the post office.
(Directly facing someone or something)

8

3)

The use of Preposition
A preposition is used with a particular meaning in a number of
expressions. Some prepositions are used in the idiom or phrase that does
not separated each other, there are two parts:
a. Common Patterns
Such as: In the morning, In the afternoon, In the evening, at the night
etc.

b. Fixed Expressions
Such as: by mistakes, by myself (without help), by hand (not machine),
etc.5

4) The Function of prepositions
The preposition has the function of connecting a noun or pronoun
to another word, usually a noun, verb or adjective.
The functions of prepositions are as follows:
a. Correlating a noun with noun
Ex: She has talked to the boy in the room
b. Correlating a verb with verb
Ex: My aunty likes to sleep on the floor
c. Correlating a noun with adjective
Ex: The Man is very successful in his business
d. Correlating a noun with participle
Ex: They are frustrated for the problem
e. Correlating a noun with verb participle
Ex: they stand up near the car.

5

A.M. Zaenuri, English Vocabulary, (Jakarta 2007), p. 8.

9

B. Total physical Response
1. Background of Total Physical Response
Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language teaching method built around
the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through
physical motor) activity.6
Total Physical response is language teaching method developed by James
Asher, the method is an example of the comprehension approach to language
teaching. The listening and responding (with actions) serves two purposes: It
is a means of quickly recognizing meaning in the language being learned, and
a means of passively learning the structure of the language itself.7 It is clear
that by this process we can observe how infants internalized their first
language. For many months the child absorbs the language without being able
to speak.
James J. Asher say “A reasonable hypothesis is that the brain and the
nervous system are biologically programmed to acquire language, either the
first or the second in a particular sequence and in a particular mode. The
sequence is listening before speaking and the mode is to synchronize language
with the individual‟s body.8 So the students are only expected to listen not to
speak, the teacher has the sole responsibility for deciding what input students
hear.
On the basis of his research, “Asher reasoned that the fastest, least
stressful way to achieve understanding of any target language is to follow
direction uttered by the instructor (without native language translation)”.9
According to the definition above, it is understandable that Total Physical
Response is a language teaching method built around speech and action,
which TPR activities provide both auditory input and physical activity.

6

Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching,
(London: Cambridge University Press. 2001),p. 87
7
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_PhysicalResponse, March, 7th 2014.
8
Ibid.
9
Diane Larsen Freeman, Techniques and Principle in Language Teaching, (Oxford University
Press. 2002), p. 108.

10

2. The Characteristic of Total physical response
Diane Larsen Freeman stated in his book “Technique and Principles in
Language Teaching”, “It should be clear from the class we observed that the
use of commands is the major teaching technique of TPR. The commands are
given to get students to perform an action”. Besides he stated “The filter is
kept low as well by the fact the students are not on the spot to speak, they
speak when they are ready to do, so “in addition, I will give you a command to
do something in English and you will do the actions along with me”.
In other opinion he stated “formal evaluation can be conducted simply by
commanding individual students to perform the series of action, teacher
should be tolerant of them and only correct major error”.
The characteristic of Total Physical Response methods are:
a. Teacher is to be a model. The instructor issues commands to a few
students, then perform the action with them
b. Develop students‟ flexibility in understanding unfamiliar utterances
c. Enjoy. Which students perform are often humorous
d. The students also learn to read and write the commands
e. Students can to be the instructor. When students are ready to speak,
they become the ones who issue the commands.
f. No basic text; materials and media have an important role later. After
students begin speaking, activities expand to include skits and games.10

3. Design of Total Physical response
In teaching of using Total Physical Response there are many rules that
must be followed. Include: the method which used in the class and the language
that presented by the teacher, Objectives of teaching, Roles of teacher and
learner. Here the rules of Total Physical Response are:
a. Method

10

Diane Larsen-Freeman, op. cit. p.113

11

Total Physical Response is very enjoying method for the students. This
method asks the response from the students about the teacher command,
because the material given with the imperative form. Because the students
are not allowed to speak before they are ready to speak in target language
in learning process in the classroom.
b. Objectives
According Richard and Rodgers “The objectives Total Physical response
are to teach oral proficiency at beginning level”. The students should be
capable to communicate with a native language.11
c. Roles of teacher and learner
1) Learner roles
Learners in Total Physical Response have the primary roles of listener
and performer. They listen attentively and respond physically to
commands and given by the teacher. Learners are required to respond both
individually and collectively. Learners have a little influence over the
content of learning, since content is determined by the teacher, who must
follow the-imperative-based format for lesson. Learners are also expected
to recognize and response to novel combinations of their own; learners
monitor and evaluate their own progress. They are encouraged to speak
when they feel ready to speak – that is, when a sufficient basis in the
language has been internalized.
2) Teacher Roles
In the Total Physical Response Method, the teacher plays a central and
active role in the sense that most of the activities are planned and
coordinated by her. She serves as a model of the sentence structures,
which are translated into imperatives forms; in this way, she is the initiator
of the process learning.
The teacher decides the content and the way she is to present material
to the students. Language learning is thus thought to be partly resulting of
the learner‟s responses to the teacher‟s commands and requests.
11

Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, op. cit. p. 91

12

In addition to the previous roles, the teacher has the responsibility to
direct the classroom activities, such as the various kinds of drills,
exercises, modifications of previously learned patters, and so forth. In
sum, she is expected to furnish all feasible opportunities for the students to
achieve successful learning.12
d. Technique in TPR
Freeman, provides expanded descriptions of some common/typical
techniques that used in Total Physical Response activities, they are as
follows:
1. Using Commands to direct behavior
2. Role Reversal
3. Action Sequence13

4. Advantages and Disadvantages of Total physical response
No method is the best in teaching in the classroom because every method
has the disadvantages and advantages, and so does Total Physical Response.
There are some advantages and disadvantages in process of teaching by using
Total Physical Response Method.
a. Advantages


It is fun and easy. Students will enjoy getting up out of their chairs and
moving around.



It does not require a great deal of preparation on the part of the teacher.
However, some other more complex applications might.



It is tool for learning vocabulary.



Class size doesn‟t need to be a problem.



It is memorable. Action help strengthen the connection in the brain



TPR seems to work effectively for children and adults. There is no age
barrier.



It is relaxing for students and students learn at their own pace.
12

Jack C. Richards and Theodore S. Rodgers, op. cit. p.93
Diane Larsen – Freeman, op. cit. p. 116-117

13

13

Based on the citation above, the writer sees that the advantages of
TPR are it can elicit fun and make students and can to be active in the
class. And it can be relaxing for students while students learn at their own
pace.
b. Disadvantages


Learners may not enough vocabulary to understand the program.



It was only for very beginning level.



TPR may be depressing for students if the teacher is not familiar with the
program.



It can be a challenge for shy students.

5. Teaching Preposition of place through Total Physical Response
On teaching Preposition of Place through Total Physical Response, the
teacher here just explains the simple preposition to the students, such as an in
front of, on, in, beside, behind and between
All of Equipment has been prepared before teaching such and the
students should know the English vocabulary about them.
a. The teacher teaching three preposition (beside, behind, between)
To begin the lesson the teacher stands beside the chair and the teacher
says, “I stand beside the chairs” then she moves behind the chair and says
“I stand behind the chairs” and she moves between the chairs and says “I
stand between the chairs”. The teacher does these three activities
explaining the three prepositions for several times. The teacher gives other
examples with her other equipments. The teacher puts the pen between
two books and says “I put the pen between the books” then the teacher
moves the pen beside the book and says “I put the pen beside the books”
then the teacher moves the pen behind the book and says “I put the pen
behind the book”. The teacher explains for several times.
To make the communicative teaching the teacher calls three
students to come to the front of the class as volunteers, they stand up in
front of the class facing the other students. The teacher tells the other

14

students to listen and look at the volunteers (the students who come
forward in front of the class). They wants to demonstrate the example
before with the students come to the front of the class.
If the teacher says “put the pen between the books” she and the
three students put the pen between two books, if she says “put the pen
beside the book she and the three volunteers put the pen beside the book, if
the teacher says “put the pen behind the book” they put the pen behind the
book.
In the End, the teacher gives the command again, and the
instructions are faster. The teacher says “put the pen between the books”,
“stand up between the chair and the table”, “stand up behind the chair”,
“and stand up beside the chair”. The teacher is very satisfied because the
students are able to use the three prepositions of place
b. The teacher teaching three preposition (in, on, in front of)
To begin the lesson the teacher takes a bag, and three cubes. The
teacher says “I put the cubes in my bag” The teacher puts the cubes in her
bag, the teacher says “I put the red cube on the yellow cube” she put the
red cube on the yellow cube. The teacher says “I put the red cube in front
of the green cube” she put the red in front of the green cube. She does the
several activities for several times.
For making it communicative, the teacher calls two others students
to become volunteers as before. She orders the two volunteers to do the
activity like before. The teacher gives each student three cubes, during the
teacher says “put the cubes in the bag” the volunteers put the cubes in the
bag. The students follow what the teacher instructs them. The teacher says
“take out the cubes from your bag and put them on the chair”, the two
students put the cubes on the chair, the teacher says “put the red cube in
front of the green and the yellow” the two students put the red cube in
front of the green and the yellow cubes. The two students do these
activities for several times.

15

To make the students more active, the teacher tries to practice these
activities with all students in the class, the teacher instructs them to take
their books, pens and bags.
The teacher say “put your book in your bag” the students follow
her command. The teacher says “take out your book and put in front of
your bag” the students response the teacher instruction. And the teacher
says “put your pen in your book” They do what the teacher said. The
students able to do what the teacher commands without any hesitations.
In the end to know their understanding in prepositions of place, the
teacher gives the commands and the instructions, the teacher says faster.
The teacher says “put the pen in your book, stand up on the floor, and put
the chair in front of the table”. The students understood the three
prepositions of place and the teacher is very satisfied that the students
mastered the prepositions of place.
In the last activity, the teacher gives the post-test such as what they
has done before by using total Physical Response method to know the
understanding in Preposition of Place through Total Physical Response
method.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the time and place of the study, the method of the
study, the subject of the study, the writer’s role in the study, the research design,
the classroom action research (CAR) procedures, the technique of collecting data,
the technique of data analysis and the criteria of the action success and hypothesis.
A. Place and Time Research
The writer did classroom Action Research (CAR) on September 2011. This
research takes place at MTS. SoebonoMantofaniJombang, Ciputat which is
located at Jl. Sumatra no 75 Jombang, Ciputat, Tangerang Selatan.
B. Research Method and Design
The writer uses classroom Action research (CAR) in this study, so she follows
principles of CAR to collect the data. The CAR procedures use in this research is
Kurt Lewin’s design. It consists of two cycles in which each cycles contains four
phases: Planning, Acting, Observing and Reflecting.
Acting

Planning

CYCLE 1
Reflecting

Observing

Planning

Acting

CYCLE 2
Reflecting

Observing

Figure 3.1
Kurt Lewins’ CAR Design

16

17

1. Cycle I
In the cycle I, the writer did planning, acting, observing and reflecting.
a. Planning
This phase, the writer planed some activities which had broken down
into: curriculum study, programming and planning of learning which
involves the application of the meetings, preparing material tools,
preparing lesson plan, preparing evaluation tools.
b. Acting
In acting phase, the writer doing learning preposition of place
material through Total Physical Response, giving post-test cycle I to
the students, observing, which includes the following activities,
c. Observing
Observing the students activities during learning activities,
rewriting the events that appear on the students during learning
activities and observation data collected during the execution of
learning activities.
d. Reflecting
Here the writer did analyzing data from the implementing of
action, evaluating the implementation of measures that have been done
on the cycle I and planning the actions for the second cycle

2. Cycle II
a. Planning
In this phase, the writer did planning the learning implementation
consisting of one meeting, making the material preposition of place
instrument, preparing the research instrument and preparing the
evaluation tools
b. Acting
Here, the writer implementing learning activity of preposition of
place material through TPR, giving the post-questionnaire and giving
post-test cycle II to the students.

18

c. Observing
Here the writer observing the students activities during learning
activities, rewriting the events that appear on the students during
learning activities, observation data collected during the execution of
learning activities.
d. Reflecting
This phase, the writer did analyzing data from the implementation
of action and evaluating the implementation of measures that have
been done on the cycle II.
Classroom Action Research (CAR) is an action research conducted with
the aim of improving the quality of practice learning in the classroom. This
method focused on the students of the academic process that occurs in the
classroom.
Based on the Lewin’s Action Research design above, the writer would
like to make an Action Research model Adapted from Kurt Lewin’s Design

19

Cycle I
Planning

Acting

After interviewing the teacher and
the students, and observing the
classroom. Then, the writer and
teacher discuss to create lesson
plan, and the instruments.

The writer conducts the lesson plan
that has been made; lesson plan
based on preposition of place
through total physical response.

Observing
The writer observes students in
teaching and learning process,
students’
ondition and the
students’ response in learning
preposition of place. After that the
writer gives students test to know
their ability in preposition of place.

Reflecting
The writer and the teacher discuss
about the result from the post test
in first cycle, in this case, the writer
ant to kno students’ s ore after
doing the post test It was improved
or not.

Cycle II
Planning

Acting
The writer implemented the lesson
plan which has been revised. In
imperative material, the students
have to act and listen to the writer
command.

The writer modified the lesson plan
based on the result of reflecting
phase. Then, the writer prepare the
post-test.

Reflecting
The writer and the teacher discuss
the result of the implementation of
modified action. If the students’
result was good was not necessary
continue to next cycle

Observing
The riter o ser es the students’
activities in the classroom and
students’ response in learning
preposition of place through TPR.
From the post test result in second
y le it ould e seen students’
improvement
in
learning
preposition of place.

Figure 3.2
Writer’s design of classroom Action Research Procedure
Adopted from Kurt Lewin’s Design

20

C. Population and Sample of the Research
The population of this study is seventh grading students of MTs. Soebono
Mantofani at Jl. Sumatra no 75 Jombang, Ciputat. The whole students are 129
students who consist of four classes, namely class 7.1, 7.2, 7.3and 7.4every class
has 20 to 30 students. The writer took out one class from the population as sample
of this research which consists of 20 students, which are divided into 1classes,
namely class 7.1. For the experiment class appointed 7.1 as the sample that get
treatment.

D. The Technique of Collecting data
Principles of data collecting in action research are similar to other studies.
In action research, both qualitative and quantitative the data used to describe the
changes: changes in teacher performance, students’ achievement results, changes
in students’ performance and classroom atmosphere changes.1 The complete
explanation is as follows:
1. Observation
First, In this case the writer uses the unstructured or opened observation to
know what happens within teaching learning process. It may be about
teachers’ performance, class situation and students’ response concerning the
application of TPR during CAR. In other words all of the need aspects should
be noticed to make sure whether the teaching learning process is in line with
the lesson plan or not. The observation is carried out by using both the form of
observation as a guideline during the research and field notes as an additional
data.
2. Interview
Interview guide is given to the students of MTs. Soebono Mantofani and
the English teacher. The writer asks them before implementing Classroom
Action Research (CAR). It is to know students’ ability in using grammar,
students’ participation in learning grammar and preposition of place and the
method or any strategies usually adopted by the teacher in teaching grammar.
1

Suharsimi Arikunto. Penelitian Tindakan Kelas, (Jakarta: Bumi Aksara,2007), p. 127

21

The interview also is carried out after Classroom Action Research (CAR) to
know the English teacher response toward the idea of Total Physical
Response.
3. Questionnaire
The writer gives questionnaires after an action research to know the
students’ opinion about method is used in the Classroom Action Research
(CAR). In this questionnaires the writer will give the score 1 (one) if the
indicator in learning phase appear. Then to know the data of questionnaire, it
uses the formula:
Score = The total number of students who selected “YES” answer X 100%
Number of Students
The result of the data adds to the percentage, it uses the classification into the
category as follows:
Table 3.1
The Interpretation of Students’ Questionnaire
No.

The Score

The Criterion

4.

81—100%

Excellent

5.

61-80%

Good

3.

41-60%

Enough

4.

21-40%

Fairly

5.

0-20%

Very Fairly

4. Test
The test used in this study is pre-test and post-test. It is used to get the data
concerning with the students’ progress in understanding prepositions of place
through TPR. The pre-test is given to the students before TPR is applied.
Meanwhile, the post-test is given after the implementation of TPR in the end
of each cycle. Both of pre-test and post-test are presented in the form of
multiple choices.

22

E. The Technique of Data Analysis
The technique of data analysis consist of data from interview, data from
observation, data from distributing questionnaire, and data from the test (pre-test
and post-test). The analysis qualitative data is used to measure data from
observation and interview, while the analysis quantitative data is used to measure
data from questionnaire and test. In analyzing the average score of students’
grammar test in each cycle, the writer uses the formula.2

=
: mean
∑X : individual score
N

: number of students

Next the writer tries to get the class percentage which pass the
minimal mastery level criterion (KKM) considering English subject gain score
75(seventy five). The formula is:3
F
P = ── X 100%
N
P: the class percentage
F: total percentage score
N: Number of students
Then, after getting mean of students’ score per actions, the writer
identifies whether or not there is an improvement of students’ score from pre-test

2

Nana Sudjana, Penilaian Hasil Belajar Mengajar, (Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya,
1991), p.109
3
Nana Sudjana, PenilaianHasilBelajarMengajar……, p. 131

23

up to post-test in cycle 1 and 2. The writer uses the formula below the analyzing
the data.4
Formula of Post-test 1
y1 - y
P = ───X 100%
y

P: percentage of students’ improvement
y: pre-test result
y1: post test 1

Formula of Post-test 2
y2 - y
P = ───X 100%
y

P: percentage of students’ improvement
y: pre-test
y2: post-test 2

The formula used to analyze data from the percentage of questionnaire result:

%=n x10
N

n: number of students who answered the option
N: number of students in the class

4

David E. Meltzer, The Relationship between Mathematics Preparation and Conceptual Learning
Gains in Physics: A Possible Hidden Variable in Diagnostic Pretest Scores, (Lowa: Department of Physics
and Astronomy, 2008), p.3.

24

F. The Validity of Data
To analyze the examined test items, the writer implements the
trustworthiness of test. There are some phases including:
1. Discriminating Power
The analysis of discriminating power of test items is to know the
performance of the test through distinguishing students who have high
achievement and low achievement. Discriminating power provides a more
detailed analysis of the test item than do’s item difficulty, because it show
how the top scores and lower scores performed on each item. The computing
of discriminating power uses the formulas following:

U-L
D = _________
N

D: The Index of discriminating power
U: The number of pupils in the upper group who answered the item
correctly
L: The number of pupils in the lower group who answered the item
correctly
N: Number of pupils in each of the group

Next, the discriminating scale uses:
DP

REMARK

≤ 0.40

Used

0.20-0.39

Revised

≤ 0.10

Discarded

CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the research findings based on the analysis of data
collected from the implementation of TPR to teaching Preposition of Place. The
research findings are described in three parts: data description, data analyzing and
data interpretation.
A. Data Description
1. Before Implementing the Action
a. The Result of Pre Interview
Pre Interview was conducted in this study was the unstructured
interview. It was held on Thursday, 18th September 2012. The writer ask the
teacher some questions, including: The general condition in English class
primarily on students performance and students achievement, the difficulty
faced by students in understanding preposition of place and the teacher
strategy to solve the students difficulties in understanding preposition of
place.
First category discussed about the general condition in English class
primarily on students’ grammar achievement of the test and students’
activities. The teacher said that most of students who did not like English
class; they gained low competence in English. Besides, they still faced
obstacle in following the English lesson. They thought English as a
complicated then considered that grammar as the most difficult one in
learning English primarily on VII class which derived the lowest score of
grammar test among the other second grade classes. Moreover, the teacher
stated that most of them were hardly to pass the Criterion of Minimum
Completeness (KKM) concerning the school policy.

25

26

The second category discussed about the students’ difficulties in
understanding preposition of place. It was related to the students’ difficulties
in understanding the formula of the sentence and remembering the pattern.
The teacher said students usually forgot about the usage of preposition of

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