The International Phonetic Alphabet IPA

14 Dalton and Seidholfer 1994: 7 states that ‘a person’s pronunciation is one expression of that person’s self-image.’ That is why, a word can be spoken in different ways by various individuals or groups, depending on many factors, such as: 1. the area in which they grew up, 2. the area in which they now live, 3. if they have a speech or voice disorder, 4. their ethnic group, 5. their social class, and 6. their education. Phonetic Transcription

As noted by Atkielski 2005: 1: Phonetic transcription is nothing more than a written record of the sounds of a spoken language. The relationship between phonetic transcription and spoken language is very similar to that between a printed musical score and a musical performance. Transcription separates pronunciation from actual audio recording, and while this might at first seem to be counterproductive, in reality it has many advantages for teaching spoken language and pronunciation. Three different phonetic transcriptions are provided as a comparison in this study, which are described as follows:

a. The International Phonetic Alphabet IPA

The International Phonetic Alphabet IPA is one of the most popular and well- known phonetic alphabets, which is originally created by primarily British language teachers, with later efforts from European phoneticians and linguists. ‘It has changed from its earlier intention as a tool of foreign language pedagogy to a 15 practical alphabet of linguists. It is currently becoming the most often seen alphabet in the field of phonetics’ Gizaw: nd. The following picture will show The International Phonetic Alphabet IPA chart. Picture 2.1 The International Phonetic Alphabet IPA 16 b. English Pronouncing Dictionary 1991 by Daniel Jones ‘English Pronouncing Dictionary EPD is a work of reference by the phonetician Daniel Jones, based on his Phonetic Dictionary of the English Language 1913’ Ry ś, 2009: 15. The phonetic transcription of vowels, diphthongs and consonants in English Pronouncing Dictionary are described as follows: Table 2.1 The Phonetic Transcription of Vowels and Diphthongs in English Pronouncing Dictionary Vowels Diphthongs [i:] bean [e ] bay [ :] barn [a ] buy [ :] born [ ] boy [u:] boon [ ə ] no [ :] burn [a ] now [ ] pit [ ə] peer [e] pet [e ə] pair [æ] pat [ ə] poor [ ] putt [ ə] pour [ ] pot [ ] put [ ə] another Jones, 1991: xiii 17 Table 2.2 The Phonetic Transcription of Consonants in English Pronouncing Dictionary Consonants [p] pin [b] bin [t] tin [d] din [k] come [ ] gum [ ] chain [d ] Jane [f] fine [v] vine [ ] think [ð] this [s] seal [z] zeal [ ] sheep [ ] measure [h] how [m] sum [n] sun [ ŋ] sung [l] light [r] right [w] wet [j] yet Jones, 1991: xiii 18 The following table shows the system and general phonetic specification of RP received pronunciation consonants: Table 2.3 Table of English Consonants B ila b ia l L a bi o- De n ta l De n ta l Al ve o la r Po st - Al ve o la r Pa la to - Al ve o la r Pa la ta l Ve la r G lo tta l Plosive [p, b] [t, d] [k, ] Affricate [ , d ] Fricative [f, v] [ , ð] [s, z] [ , ] [x] [h] Nasal [m] [n] [ ŋ] Lateral [l] Approximant or Semi- vowel [w] [r] [j] Note : Where consonants appear in pairs, the one on the left is fortis voiceless, i.e. typically without vibration of the vocal folds and that on the right is lenis often voiced, i.e. with vocal fold vibration, but always weaker in articulation than the fortis member of the pair. The presence of [x] in denotes that the sound is optimal Jones, 1991: xviii-xix. 19

c. Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary software - 3rd Edition 2008