Contamination of the ELC Cooling System General Coolant Information

158

2. Water

NOTICE Never use water alone without Supplemental Coolant Additive SCAs or inhibited coolant. Water alone is corrosive at engine operating temperatures and does not provide adequate boil protection. Distilled water or deionized water is recommended for use in cooling systems. Do not use hard tap water or salt softened tap water in engine cooling systems. If distilled water or deionized water is not available, use water that meets the minimum requirements that are listed in the following table. Table Caterpillar Recommended Quality Limits Water Property grains3.8 L ppm1 US gal Chloride CI 2.4 40 maximum Sulfate 2 SO. 5.9 100 maximum Total Water Hardness 3 10 170 maximum Total Solids 4 20 340 maximum Total Solids 4 20 340 maximum Acidity 5 5.5 pH to 9.0 pH For a water analysis, consult one of the following organizations: 1. The Caterpillar Laboratory for an SOS Analysis 2. The LOCC Corporation 3. Local water department 4. Agricultural agent 5. Independent laboratory

3. Additives

Coolant additives help in the following ways: • Preventing rust from forming • Preventing scale and mineral deposits from forming 159 • Protecting metals from corroding • Preventing cavitation of the liner • Preventing coolant from foaming Many additives are depleted during engine operation and these additives need to be replaced. This can be done through the addition of Supplemental Coolant Additives SCA to Diesel Engine AntifreezeCoolant DEAC or by adding Extender to Extended Life Coolant ELC. Additives must be added at the proper concentration. Overconcentration of additives can cause the inhibitors to drop out-of-solution. This can cause a gel compound to form in the radiator. An overconcentration of additives can produce deposits on water pump seals that can cause water pump seal leakage. A low concentration of additives can produce the following problems: 1. Pitting 2. Cavitation erosion 3. Rust 4. Scale 5. Foaming

4. Glycol

Glycol in the coolant provides anti-boil protection and freeze protection. Glycol in the coolant prevents water pump cavitation. Glycol in the coolant also reduces cylinder liner pitting. For optimum performance, Caterpillar recommends a solution that contains a 1:1 mixture of water and of glycol. Note: Caterpillar engines with air-to-air aftercooling require a minimum of 30 percent glycol in order to prevent water pump cavitation. Most conventional heavy-duty coolantantifreezes use ethylene glycol. Propylene glycol may also be used. In a mixture that is 50 percent water, ethylene glycol and propylene glycol have similar properties that are relative to the following elements: heat transfer, freeze protection, control of corrosion and compatibility of the seal. Check the glycol level of the coolant system with the 1U - 7298 Coolant Tester Group °C or with the 1U-7297 Coolant Tester Group °F. Tables 13 and 14 define the freeze protection for ethylene glycol and for propylene glycol. TORQUES FOR BOLTS AND NUTS The following tables give general torques for metric bolts, nuts, and taperlock studs of Grade 8.8. The material strength identification is usually shown on the bolt head by numbers 8.8, 10.9, etc.

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PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

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PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

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PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

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