Commercial Diesel Engine Oils Lubricant Specifications

148 Illustration 68 Diesel engine oils CD, CD-2, and CE will not be API authorized categories after 1 January 1996. Caterpillar will only reference those categories that are authorized by the API. Table 21 summarizes the status of the categories. Table 21 Current Obsolete CF CC, CD CF-21 CD-2 1 CF-4, CG-4 CE 1 CD-2 and CF-2 are categories for two-cycle diesel engines. Caterpillar does not sell engines that utilize CD-2 and CF-2 oils. Note: CF is not the same classification as CF-4. API CF oils are only recommended for Caterpillar machine engines with noncurrent precombustion chamber fuel systems PC. In previous editions of this document, Caterpillar referred to the US Military Oil Specifications MIL-L-XXXX and to the European CCMC oil specifications. These specifications do not provide identical performance to API CF-4 or API CG-4 engine oils. Caterpillar will not make reference to military specifications or CCMC specifications in this document. TransmissionDrive Train Oil Transmissiondrive train oils are classified by the TO-4 specifications. The specifications are developed by Caterpillar for use in Caterpillar transmissions and for use in Caterpillar final drives. Gear Oil Gear lubricants are classified by the API service classification and by the SAE viscosity grade that is defined in SAE J306. 149 Grease The classifications for grease are based on the ASTM D2718 worked penetration characteristics, which are given a defined consistency number. Terminology Certain abbreviations follow the nomenclature of SAE J754. Some classifications follow SAE J183 abbreviations. Definitions that differ from Caterpillar definitions will assist you when you purchase lubricants. Recommended oil viscosities can be found in the table of Lubricant Viscosities that is in this document. Cetane Number During average starting conditions, direct injection engines require a minimum cetane number of 40. A higher cetane value may be required for high altitude operation or for cold weather operation. Filterability Clean fuels should have no more than a 0.10 percent concentration of sediment and of water. Fuel that is stored for extended periods of time may form solids due to oxidation. This could cause filtering problems. Pour Point A fuels pour point should be at least 6°C 10°F below the lowest ambient temperature that is required for engine start-up and for engine operation. To operate the engine in extremely cold weather, No. 1 fuel or No. 1-D fuel may be necessary because of these fuels lower pour points. Cloud Point To prevent the fuel filter elements from plugging with wax crystals, the cloud point should be below the lowest ambient temperature that is required for engine start-up and for engine operation. Viscosity Fuel viscosity affects the lubrication of fuel system components. Fuel viscosity also affects fuel atomization. The viscosity limits that are provided in Table 20 address these effects. Additives Fuel additives are not generally recommended for the specified fuels that are listed. Fuel additives are not needed for the specified fuels that are listed. Cetane improvers 150 can be used for the direct injection engine requirements, as needed. Biocides may be needed in order to eliminate microorganism growth in storage tanks. In cold conditions, treatment for entrained water may also be necessary. Consult your fuel supplier about the use of additives in order to prevent incompatibility between additives that are already in the fuel and additives that will be used. Fuel Sulfur The percentage of sulfur that is in the fuel will affect the engine oil recommendations. Fuel sulfur is chemically changed during combustion. This chemical change causes the formation of sulfurous acid and of sulfuric acid. These acids cause corrosive wear to metal surfaces. Sulfur oxides that are formed during combustion also produce particulate exhaust emissions. Certain additives that are used in lubricating oils contain alkaline compounds which neutralize the acids in combustion gases. This minimizes corrosive wear. The measure of this reserve alkalinity in a lubricating oil is known as the oils Total Base Number TBN. In the USA, 0.05 percent diesel fuels have been used in all on-highway truck engines since 1 January 1994. This low sulfur diesel fuel was mandated as a means of directly reducing particulate emissions from diesel truck engines. This low sulfur fuel will also be used in Caterpillar machines when low emissions are needed or when supply sources provide this type of fuel. Caterpillar has not seen any detrimental effects with 0.05 percent sulfur fuel in Caterpillar machines. Periodically request information about fuel sulfur content from your fuel supplier. Fuel sulfur content can change with each bulk delivery. NOTICE Residual, Blended, or Heavy fuels must not be used in Caterpillar diesel engines. Severe component wear and component failures will result if residual type fuels are used. Fuel Specifications

4. Fuel Recommendations

NOTICE Fill the fuel tank at the end of each day of operation to drive out moist air and to prevent condensation. Do not fill the tank to the top. Fuel expands as it gets warm and may overflow. NOTICE Do not fill fuel filters with fuel before installing them. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to fuel system parts. 151 Diesel fuels that meet the specifications in the table will provide rated engine performance and full component life. In North America, diesel fuel that is identified as No. 1-D or as No. 2-D in ASTM D975 usually meets the specifications. Table 20 is for diesel fuels that are distilled from crude oil. Diesel fuels from other sources could exhibit detrimental properties that are not defined or controlled by this specification. Table 20 Caterpillar Specifications for Distillate Diesel Fuel Specifications ASTM Test Requirements Aromatics D1319 35 percent maximum Ash D482 0.02 percent weight maximum Carbon Residue on 10 percent Bottoms D524 1.05 percent weight maximum Cetane Number D613 35 PC minimum 40 Dl minimum Cloud Point {D9T maximum cloud point must not exceed ambient temperature Copper Strip Corrosion D130 No. 3 maximum Distillation D86 10 percent at 282°C 540°F maximum 90 percent at 360°G 680° F maximum Flash Point D93 Legal minimum API Gravity D287 30 minimum 45 maximum Pour Point D97 6°C 10°F minimum below ambient temperature SulfuM D3605 or D1552 3 percent maximum Viscosity2 D445 Kinematic at 40°C 104°F 1.4 cSt minimum 20.0 cSt maximum Water and Sediment D1796 0.1 percent maximum Water D1744 0.1 percent maximum Sediment D473 0.05 percent maximum Gums and Resins D381 10 mg100ml_ maximum 5.8 grainsUS gal maximum

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PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

97 2746 16

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

35 709 43

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

32 598 23

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

15 394 24

PENGARUH PENERAPAN MODEL DISKUSI TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN TES LISAN SISWA PADA MATA PELAJARAN ALQUR’AN HADIS DI MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NEGERI TUNGGANGRI KALIDAWIR TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

23 533 23

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

44 906 14

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

43 817 50

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

13 500 17

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

19 743 30

KREATIVITAS GURU DALAM MENGGUNAKAN SUMBER BELAJAR UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KUALITAS PEMBELAJARAN PENDIDIKAN AGAMA ISLAM DI SMPN 2 NGANTRU TULUNGAGUNG Institutional Repository of IAIN Tulungagung

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