conteptual methapor analysis in george W. Bush and barack obama inaugural addres
CONCEPTUAL METAPHOR ANALYSIS IN GEORGE W. BUSH AND BARACK OBAMA INAUGURAL ADDRESS
Submitted to Letters and Humanities Faculty in Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for
The Degree of Strata One
YULIANA KUSLAMBANGNINGRUM NIM. 1110026000014
ENGLISH LETTERS DEPARTMENT LETTERS AND HUMANITIES FACULTY
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY OF SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH JAKARTA
Yuliana Kuslambangningrum, Conceptual Metaphor Analysis in George W. Bush and Barack Obama Inaugural Address. Thesis: English Letters Department, Letters and Humanities Faculty, State Islamic University of Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, December 2014.
The purpose of this research is to analyze the conceptual metaphor of George W. Bush and Barack Obama inaugural address, which metaphor is mostly found in formal speeches such as inaugural address. In this case, the aims of this research are: (1) to convey the concepts and meanings of the metaphorical expression, (2) to convey the functions of the metaphorical expression used by George W. Bush and Barack Obama.
The method of this research is using qualitative descriptive analysis. The research questions will be answered in analytical description. The collected metaphorical expression have picked up randomly then classified based on the same concept. The concept of metaphorical expressions are analyzed by using George Lakoff and Mark Johnson theory which the concept elaborated into mappings to see the relations between source domain and target domain that leads to understand the meaning and also to convey the function of metaphorical expression by Leech.
The result of this research shows that there are eighteen data collected from random sampling. Those collected data showed nine concepts which mostly found based on the metaphorical expression mapping. The mapping process had proven that the meaning of metaphor can be easier to understand so, the message of the speech delivered successfully to the listener. The functions of metaphorical expressions consist of five functions, but only four of five functions found in those speeches.
Keywords: Conceptual Metaphor, Source Domain, Target Domain, Mappings, Comparing One to Another, Lakoff and Johnson, Inaugural Address.
I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and that, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person nor material which to a substantial extent has been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of the university or other institute of higher learning, except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text.
Jakarta, February 6th, 2015.
In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent and the most Merciful.
All praises be to Allah SWT, the Lord of universe, for the opportunity to be in this level of life, becoming a bachelor of arts. May peace and salutation be upon the honorable prophet Muhammad SAW and all of his family, companions and adherents.
Deepest gratitude goes to her beloved parents, Joko Susanto and Sri Mulyani, for all their great love, patience, support and prayer. Thanks for becoming the greatest strength and supporter of her life. The writer also gives the highest appreciations to Mr. Hilmi Akmal, M.Hum and Mrs. Yenny Rahmawati, M.Ed, as her advisors for their precious time, help, patience and motivation from the beginning to the final step of this research.
The gratitude is also dedicated to Prof. Dr. Oman Fathurahman, M.Hum, the Dean of Letters and Humanities Faculty; Mr. Dr. H. Muhammad Farkhan, M.Pd, the Assistant of Dean of Letters and Humanities Faculty; Mr. Drs. Saefuddin, M.Pd, the Head of English Letters Department; Mrs. Elve Oktafiyani, M.Hum, the Secretary of English Letters Department; and all the lecturers of English Letters Department for the valuable knowledge and experience at UIN Jakarta.
In addition to those listed, the writer also would like to give appreciation to the following friends and people, namely:
1. Her room companion, Laila Fajriah, who always listen to her up and down life experiences. Thank you for sharing everything.
2. English Letters B and Linguistic A, thank you for the cooperation in studying English together in the last 4 years. Success for all of us! 3. KELUARGA HAHA consists of Debi Novianingrum, Fithria
Luthfiyani, Bagus Putra Ramadhansya, Rana Meisara, Thia Askayuli, Fahmi Fahrurroji and Muhammad Sazali, thank you for the unstoppable laugh sharing in every meeting. Hopefully, our friendship will last forever.
4. KKN BARISTA 2013; Ipeh, Fera, Okta, Uung, Ummi, Kiki, Vale,
Aceng, Bewok, Uda, Murdok, Mul, Bang Wahyu, Kopet, Icang, I‟am.
Thank you for the laugh, tears, togetherness, and every unexpected journey in Sukajaya.
5. Yahya Arian Dani, thank u 4 sharing every single thing in the last 5 years.
6. Marc Márquez, who entertain every races with passion and ambition of
a young rider. Mas rapido, Mas Marquez. Gaaas!
Jakarta, February 2015
LIST OF TABLE
Table 2.1 :Elements of Metaphor ……….
Table 2.2 : Mapping the relation of ARGUMENT IS WAR ………
Table 3.1 :Metaphorical Expression, Conceptual Metaphor, Meaning and Function from George W. Bush and Barack Obama Inaugural
Table 3.1.1 : Mapping of NATION IS PERSON ……….
Table 3.2.1 : Mapping of CRISIS IS SICK ………..
Table 3.3.1 : Mapping of NATION AS FAMILY ………...
Table 3.4.1 : Mapping of PROBLEM IS STORM ………...
Table 3.5.1 : Mapping of FIRE IS ATTACK ………..
Table 3.6.1 : Mapping of SPIRIT IS FIRE ………..
Table 3.7.1 : Mapping of LIFE IS JOURNEY ………
Table 3.8.1 : Mapping of RELATIONSHIP IS PLANTING ………..
Table 3.9.1 : Mapping of TIME IS PERSON ……….. 13 18
24 32 35 38 41 43 45 48 51 53
viii 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 10 12 13 15 iv 1 vii v 7 iii ii i 5 1 4 7 10 viii 5
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ……….…….... APPROVAL SHEET ………..……… LEGALIZATION ………..…….…… DECLARATION ……….….…….. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……….……...…. THE LIST OF TABLE ………. TABLE OF CONTENTS ………. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION ………..
A. Background of Research .……….………
B. Focus of Research ………
C. Research Questions ………..…
D. Significance of Research ………..
E. Research Methodology ………...
1. Objective of the Research ………...
2. The Method of Research ………....
3. Technique of Data Collecting and Data Analysis… 4. Research Instrument ………
5. Unit of Analysis ………..
CHAPTER II . THEORETICAL DESCRIPTION ………
A. Previous Research ……….
B. Concept ……….
1. Discourse Analysis ………..………
2. Metaphor ………..………
2.2 Function of Metaphorical Expression ………
CHAPTER III. RESEARCH FINDINGS ………..………
A. Data Description …..………….……….
B. Data Analysis ………..………….………..
CHAPTER IV. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION ……….
A. Conclusion ...………..
B. Suggestion ..……….…...
BIBLIOGRAPHY ……….…………. APPENDICES ……….…...
A. Background of the Research
Kridalaksana defined language as a system of arbitrary symbols used by members of social group to work together, communicate, and identify themselves.1
Generally, language has two terms of meaning, literal meaning and
non-literal meaning. Literal meaning assumed to be conventionalized. It doesn‟t
need any special interpretation effort to understand. On the other hand, non-literal meaning is assumed to be non-conventionalized. Thus, it needs a special interpretation effort to understand. The term non-literal meaning is used to differentiate from literal meaning, a meaning that is derived from the latter and, in a sense has a secondary status. Therefore, it is traditionally assumed that in terms of the enfolding of the interpretation process, the literal meaning of an expression is processed first, whereas any potential non-literal meaning
are processed afterwards and only if the literal interpretation doesn‟t fit the given context.2 Non-literal uses of language are traditionally called figurative language and described by a lot of rhetorical terms.
The most common rhetorical term used in discourse is metaphor. Generally, metaphors are not literally easy to understand, because they have a
Harimurti Kridalaksana, ”Bahasa dan Linguistik” in Kushartanti, Untung Yuwono, Multamia RMT Lauder (Ed.), Pesona Bahasa; Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik, (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2005). p. 3
Kristin Börjesson, “The Notions of Literal and Non-literal Meaning in Semantics and Pragmatics”- Doctoral Degree Disertation, Philologischen Fakultät, Universität Leipzig. 2011. p. 3
special character that literal expression doesn‟t.3
Although metaphorical meaning has a special characteristic that distinguish from the literal meaning, it has the same basic function to understand as in literal meaning. Metaphor is hard to understand by most of people, but in political discourse metaphor is commonly used by politicians to inform political events, because it assumed to be easier to understand by using metaphor instead of using the literal one. Moreover, metaphor usually used for aesthetic or rhetorical purpose, such as in inaugural address.4
Inaugural address is a formal speech which is delivered by the president of United States, on Inauguration Day, January 20; soon after swear the oath of office. The president delivers an inaugural address to the people for the new administration.5 In political speeches, such inaugural address, metaphor is important to help the listener easier to understand the complex matter in political ideas. The used of metaphor as a part of figurative language aims to help the listener to visualize what is meant by a phrase or expression, although for most of people metaphor is hard to be understood. The goal for politicians is not only to present facts, but also to be persuasive. The speaker needs to use their language to show emotions and affect the audience. The orator
doesn‟t have to modify the facts when using metaphoric language, the
William Croft and D. Alan Cruse, Cognitive Linguistics (Cambridge: 2004). p.194 4
David L. Ritchie, Metaphor (Cambridge, 2013). p. 5 5
Ida Vestermark. “Metaphors in Politics Essay; A Study of The Metaphorical Personification of America in Political Discourse”. Department of Language and Culture, Luleå
response to the address depends on the interpretation in the mind of the listener.6
Metaphor is pervasive in our daily life not only in language, but also in thought and action. We understand them immediately so that we do not need to pay attention to their metaphorical expression. Metaphor are conceived and grasped with the same facility as our ordinary literal vocabulary. There is no problem in understanding metaphor; the problem is to explain how we understand them. According to Lakoff and Johnson metaphor is a property of concepts, so metaphor can be understood by elaborating the conceptual metaphor. In conceptual metaphors, one domain of experience is used to understand another domain of experience.
The characterization of conceptual metaphor is set of mapping, in which this set of mappings obtains between basic constituent elements of the source domain and basic constituent elements of the target. To know a conceptual metaphor is to know the set of mappings that provide much of the meaning of the metaphorical linguistic expression that make a particular conceptual metaphor manifest7. By this mapping process we can comprehend the meaning of metaphor easier.
Therefore, in this research, the writer try to find the conceptual metaphor that can explain how the metaphor can be understood by using conceptual metaphor theory conducted by Lakoff and Johnson, in two inaugural addresses
Zoltán Kövecses, Metaphor: A Practical Introduction (Second Edition), (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). p. 14
delivered by George W. Bush and Barack Obama in their first and second term of presidential. Conceptual metaphor theory elaborates the correlation between two conceptual domains called mapping which also leads to understanding the meaning of metaphor.
B. Focus of the Research
This research focused on how the metaphor can be understood by elaborating the conceptual metaphor found in speeches; explained the meaning and the function of metaphorical language used by George W. Bush and Barack Obama on their Inaugural Address.
C. Research Questions
1. What are the conceptual metaphors and what are the meanings of the metaphors used by George W. Bush and Barack Obama? 2. What are the functions of the metaphorical expression used by
George W. Bush and Barack Obama?
D. Significance of the Research
1. To convey how metaphor understood by elaborating mapping process from conceptual metaphor theory conducted by Lakoff and Johnson and also to conveying the meaning of metaphor which much more seen in the mapping process too.
2. To convey the function of its metaphor used in Inaugural Address by George W. Bush and Barack Obama by using the function of metaphorical expression theory conducted by Leech.
E. Research Methodology
1. Objectives of the Research
The objectives of this research are to elaborate the conceptual metaphors that lead to understand the meaning and also to
convey their function of George W. Bush and Barack Obama‟s
2. Research Method
The method of this research is using qualitative analysis. A research with qualitative method is a research relying on verbal and non numerical data as the basis of analysis and of solving the problem appears8. The result of this research will be described in analytical description. Meanwhile, this research will be analyzed with conceptual metaphor theory by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. The analysis will be elaborated the conceptual metaphor that lead to find the meaning and the function of metaphorical expression based on conceptual metaphor theory.
3. Technique of Data Collecting and Data Analysis
In this research, the technique of data collecting will use bibliography technique (teknik kepustakaan). According to Subroto, this technique used written sources to collect data using semantic field in data collection. 9 Therefore the relevant data will be included with the context sentence in each data. The
Muhammad Farkhan, Proposal Penelitian Bahasa dan Sastra (Jakarta: Cella, 2007), p.2 9
D. Edi Subroto, Pengantar Metode Penelitian Linguistik Struktural (Surakarta: Sebelas Maret University Press, 1992), p. 42
metaphorical expression will be observed directly. It will be noted into data cards based on two inaugural addresses delivered by George W. Bush and Barack Obama. When collecting data cards are complete, then data cards will be shuffled and picked up randomly. After that, the chosen data will be classified based on the concepts which are found in the metaphorical linguistic expression. The next step is finding the mapping to see the relation between source domain and target domain in the concept. The meaning of the metaphor will be much more seen from this mapping. The last is identifying the function of the metaphorical expression used in four inaugural addresses.
4. Research Instrument
The research instrument used on this research is the writer herself by using chosen data card taken from four inaugural addresses that has metaphorical language.
5. Unit of Analysis
The unit analyses of the research are the first in 2001 and the second in 2005 George W. Bush inaugural address and the first in 2009 and the second in 2013 Barack Obama inaugural address.
A. Previous Research
Research about metaphor has been analyzed by many people, such as Ida Vestermark entitled Metaphors in Politics: A Study of the Metaphorical Personification of America in Political Discourse. This paper observed the conceptual metaphors of personification in American inaugural addresses, for what the metaphor are used and what do they suggest to the audience. The analysis proved that all presidents used metaphors in personalizing America to activate the emotions of the listener. The analysis also revealed the importance of interpreting metaphors based on the context, because sometimes the language not always interprets metaphorically.10
The same theory has been used by a student of Indonesian Studies in University of Indonesia, Eko Prasetyo Rahardjo entitled Metafora Pengungkapan Cinta Pada Pantun Melayu, which observed the metaphor of
love expression from a chapter of Malay Pantun named “Cinta yang Berjaya”.
The objective of the analysis is to identify the metaphorical terms of love expression and describe the relation between source and target domain by using conceptual mapping. The analysis discovered that metaphorical language which describe abstract things and difficult to explain can be much more understandable. Identified words and phrases also explained metaphor
Ida Vestermark, Extended Essay: “Metaphors in Politics Essay; A Study of The Metaphorical Personification of America in Political Discourse”, (Department of Language and Culture, Luleå University of Technology, 2007).
that used by Malay society. Context of culture may influence the mapping process of conceptualization of metaphorical phrases from Bahasa Indonesia with the theory based on English which has a different language and culture background from Bahasa Indonesia.11
Another analysis about metaphor wrote by Aizul Maula, a student of English Letters in State Islamic University Jakarta, the research is a comparative analytical study about the translations of metaphors in the Holy
Qur‟an, using the concept from James Dickin that divide the types of
metaphor and the techniques of translations to find how metaphors in the Holy
Qur‟an are translated into English by the four translators. The analysis resulted that the five techniques from four English translators of the Holy Qur‟an are
accurate in one verse, but inaccurate in the other verse because of their variety of background. The beautiful form of metaphor sometimes lost when it is translated into sense only. It is not always guaranteed that one technique would be the best for translating metaphor without any classification.12
Not so different from the previous analysis, Lailiyyatuz Zuhriyyah, a student of English Letters in State Islamic University Jakarta, also focused on types and added the meaning explanation of metaphor and metonymy in the
Breaking Dawn novel using Lakoff and Johnson theory to show how metaphorical and metonymical expressions may give understanding deeper
11 Eko Prasetyo Rahardjo, Unpublished Bachelor Thesis: “Metafora Pengungkapan Cinta Pada Pantun Melayu”, (Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan Budaya, University of Indonesia, 2009).
12Aizul Maula, Unpublished Bachelor Thesis: “A Metaphor Translation of The Holy Qur‟an: A Comparative Analytical Study”, (Faculty of Letters and Humanity, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2011).
than literal one because they are more expressive and evokes a particular sense which can help the readers to conceive what the author means. This research concluded the usage of metaphor is not completely different from the literal meaning because it is just the matter of meaning extension.13
The last analysis wrote by Bintarti Mayang Sari, with the title
Metafora Dalam Pidato Charles De Gaulle Pada Perang Dunia II. The analysis focused on metaphor categorization and its meaning from an independence speech delivered by a French politician named De Gaulle, using Lakoff and Johnson conceptual metaphor theory to show how a politics speech can be easier to understand by the listener and also can be easier to deliver by De Gaulle to share his concepts and point of view toward the actual situation in France. In this analysis, there are several concepts of metaphor used by De Gaulle to made French society easier to access De Gaulle‟s message. Metaphor in his speech showed the concept of his state of mind as a leader of French, toward the complicated actual situation in World War II to achieve real independence.14
The previous researches above haven‟t mentioned the function of metaphorical language; therefore this is the obvious reason why this research will be seen as newer and interesting research to analyze.
13Lailiyyatuz Zuhriyyah, Unpublished Bachelor Thesis: “An Analysis of Metaphor and Metonymy on Stephenie Meyer‟s Novel Breaking Dawn”, (Faculty of Letters and Humanity, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2011).
14Binarti Mayang Sari, Unpublished Bachelor Thesis: “Metafora Dalam Pidato Charles De Gaulle Pada Perang Dunia II”, (Fakultas Ilmu Pengetahuan Budaya, University of Indonesia, 2012).
1. Discourse Analysis
According to Untung Yuwono:
“Wacana adalah kesatuan makna (semantis) antarbagian di dalam suatu bangun bahasa. Wacana dilihat sebagai bangun bahasa yang utuh karena setiap bagian di dalam wacana itu berhubungan secara padu.”15
Based on opinion above the definition of discourse is a complete unit of language, it is more than text or stretch in written or utterance. It consists of more than one sentence and those sentences combine to form a meaningful whole. In a meaningful form, discourse can be seen as a complete set of language, because each sentences or each part of discourse related coherently. Therefore, discourse can be easily understood because of the coherent sentences combination that leads into meaningful form.
Discourse analysis is concerned with the knowledge about language beyond the word, clause, phrase and sentence that is needed for successful communication. Therefore, the main focus of discourse analysis is both to show and interpret the relationship between the meanings and purposes expressed through discourse.16 Discourse usually refers to a form of language use, public speeches or more generally to spoken language or
Untung Yuwono, “Wacana” in Kushartanti, Untung Yuwono, Multamia RMT Lauder (Ed.), Pesona Bahasa; Langkah Awal Memahami Linguistik, (Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2005). p.7
David Nunan, Introduction to Discourse Analysis, (London: Penguin Books, 1993). p. 7
ways of speaking. However, language use is not only limited to spoken language but also in written language, communication and interaction, textbooks and others which refer to the same meaning. Communicative event is the function aspect that embodies in discourse. That is the reason why people use language to communicate their ideas or beliefs (or to express emotion) as part of more complex social events.17
However, sometimes we found metaphorical expression in some discourse in order to gain successful communication especially in speech.
The used of metaphor as a tool to uncover people‟s idea, attitudes, and
values can be observe through discourse analysis.18 It is because the used of metaphor expression has an attractive function to avoid the listener getting bored easily by using indirect expression. Also, in discourse studies, metaphor attracts to be analyzed about how we see and understand something in reality through language.19 Lakoff and Johnson viewed metaphor as a cognitive device for understanding or experiencing one kind of thing or experience in terms of another. For instance, in the sentence
that cost me a lot of time, we can see that time is often viewed as economic factor; the TIME IS MONEY metaphor is illogical in that sentence since
“time” which consider as abstract concept can be understood as “money”
Teun A. Van Dijk, Discourse as Structure and Process, (London: Sage Publications, 1997). p. 2
Lynne Cameron; Maslen, Robert; Todd, Zazie; Maule, John; Stratton, Peter and Stanley, Neil, The Discourse Dynamics Approach to Metaphor-Led Discourse Analysis and Symbol (Journal Article), (The Open University, 2009). p. 3
Jan Renkema, Introduction to Discourse Studies, (Philadelphia: John Benjamin Publishing, 2004). p. 252
which has more concrete concept. This metaphor in discourse attracts the reader or listener because it has unusual way to communicate but still has the same meaning as the usual way. Moreover, in understanding a concept of metaphor it needs context to support the idea of the metaphor concept that leads to understand the meaning.
Context refers to an ever-widening set of factors that accompany language in use. Context is the other characteristic of the social situation or communicative event that systematically influence text or talk.20 There are two types of context. The first is the linguistic context, the language that surrounds or accompanies the piece of discourse under analysis. The second is the non-linguistic or experiential context within which discourse takes place.21 Non-linguistic context include: the type of communicative event (for instance joke, story, lecture, greeting, conversation); the topic; the purpose of the event; the setting, including location, time of day, season of year and physical aspects of the situation (for instance, size of the room, arrangement of furniture); the participants and the relationships between them; and the background knowledge and assumptions underlying the communicative event. In the case of discourse analysis, the main purpose is to show and to interpret the meaning and purposes which expressed through discourse.
Ibid. p. 3 21
Metaphor is one of the usages of figurative language, when a speaker use an expression figuratively he or she feels that no literal use will give the same effect.22 Metaphor allows us to understand one domain of experience in terms of another. To serve this function, there must be some grounding, some concepts that are not completely understood via metaphor to serve as source domains. To analyze metaphor there are three things to be consider, they are the metaphor (a word or phrase or longer stretch of language), its meanings (what it refers to metaphorically), and the similarity or connection between the two.23 There are three ways to identify metaphor they are vehicle, topic and grounds.
Table 2.1 Elements of metaphor
Context Be prepared for the mountain of paperwork
topic/meaning a large amount
ideas of size, being immovable, and difficult to deal with
Vehicle is the comparison concept or the analogy, whereas a topic is the starting point or described concept. Grounds is the relationship
William Croft & D. Alan Cruse, Cognitive Linguistics, (Cambridge, 2004) p. 193 23
between the literal and metaphorical meanings which provide the key to how effective that vehicle is.24
There are some kinds of metaphor; creative (novel) metaphor, and conventional metaphor.25 Creative metaphor or novel metaphor is often correlated to literature which is using literary language is the characteristic of this kind of metaphor. It is when which writer or speaker constructs to express a particular idea or feeling in a particular context and which a reader or hearer needs to deconstruct in order to understand the meaning. For instance, Shakespeare and Yeats create poetic effects by creating new images with all the world is a stage, the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune and dolphin-torn, that gong-tormented sea. Conventional metaphor is the metaphorical usages which are found many times to refer to a particular thing. For instance, in the metaphor of cells fighting-off
infection and micro organism invading and the metaphorical meanings of
divorced as completely separated and field as specialized subject or activity.26 These kinds of metaphor are known as a part of the language. In fact, they are metaphorical usages that hardly to recognize and sometimes used to refer to dead metaphor which people do not recognize as metaphorical in ordinary usages.
Ibid, p.7 25
Ibid, p.7 26
2.1.Conceptual Metaphor Theory
Lakoff and Johnson describe metaphor as follows:
“The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another”.27
The conceptual theory of metaphor is primary to find metaphorical mapping between domains and how they guided human reasoning and behavior. The concepts that our ordinary conceptual system includes structured what we perceived, how we get around the world, and how we relate to other people.28
When one conceptual domain is understood in terms of another conceptual domain, we have conceptual metaphor. This understanding is achieved by seeing a set of systematic correspondences, or mappings, between the two domains. Conceptual metaphors can be given by means of the formula A IS B or A AS B, where A and B indicate different conceptual domains.
These following examples are conceptual metaphor:
ARGUMENT IS WAR TIME IS MONEY LOVE IS JOURNEY
THEORIES ARE BUILDING IDEAS ARE FOOD
George Lakoff & Mark Johnson, Metaphor We Live By, (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1980) p. 5
From the example above, ARGUMENT, TIME, LOVE, THEORIES and IDEAS are called as target domain. WAR, MONEY, JOURNEY, BUILDING and FOOD are called as source domain. Target domain is the domain that we try to understand through the use of source domain. Source domain is the domain which supports the literal meaning of the expression, whereas the target domain is the domain that the sentence is actually talking about.
The main type of evidence given for the existence of conceptual metaphor called metaphorical linguistic expressions. Metaphorical linguistic expressions are words and expressions come from terminology of the conceptual domain that is used to understand another conceptual domain.
(1) “He attackedevery weak point in my argument”
(2) “I demolished his argument”
(3) “Your claims are indefensible”
(4) “He shot downall of my arguments”
(5) “His criticisms were right on target”
The underlined words are linguistic expressions which refer to how the argument can be reflected as a war. When we use attack, demolished,
indefensible, shot down and target to talk about ARGUMENT, these metaphorical expressions comes from the domain of WAR. The fact is those expressions are not only refer to some war terms but also to form a human cognition based on the used concept. Everybody can be completely
win or lose in an argument, to win an argument they have to use a strategy
and if they don‟t have a strong strategy or weapons they will lose and their
weak argument can be easily defeated. Many of things we do in arguing are partially structured by the concept of war.29
There is a set of systematic correspondences between the source and the target in the sense that constituent conceptual elements of target domain correspond to constituent elements of source domain.30 In short, there is a connection or correlation between concept areas in correspondence or mapping terms. For instance, in the source domain WAR is a defensive barricade or line of soldiers which is this concept area is represents idealized, traditional and notions of war. In the target domain ARGUMENT this corresponds to the data, facts, or belief which someone has and uses to reinforce their position. The weak points in barricade or line of soldiers which enemies are looking for to attack in order to win the war is just the same as the weak points in argument for instance incomplete data, incorrect information and false beliefs that might leads to defeat. Here are the mappings to support the conceptual metaphor of ARGUMENT IS WAR
Ibid, p. 4 30
Zoltán Kövecses, Metaphor: A Practical Introduction (Second Edition), (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). p. 7
Table 2.2 Mapping, the relation of ARGUMENT and WAR31
Source: WAR Target: ARGUMENT
War contenders People arguing
War strategies (tactics, high technology weapons, strong
Strategies for arguing (strong argument, facts, and beliefs)
To win or lose a battle To win or lose an argument To stop fighting To stop arguing
Highlighting and Hiding
Not all concepts from source domain can be applied to target domain. When a source domain is applied to a target domain, only some aspects are brought into focus. Highlighting refer to the selective mapping of source domain features onto target domain.32 For instance, in the metaphor ARGUMENT IS WAR, only partial features from WAR can be applied to ARGUMENT. This metaphor highlights conflict and business of winning or losing (such as attacking, defending, and making strategy to gain victory) and hiding other possibilities such as agreement, reconcilement, armistice and compromise. The other features opposite from highlighting called hiding.
Lakoff, George, The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor in Andrew Ortony (ed),
Metaphor and Thought (2nd ed). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1993 32
Moreover, a source or target domain may have multiple mappings that represent different sets of concepts in each mapping.33 For example, the target domain ARGUMENT has three source domains besides the source domain WAR. ARGUMENT IS A JOURNEY, ARGUMENT IS A CONTAINER and ARGUMENT IS A BUILDING, those metaphors represent different sets of concepts. The JOURNEY metaphor focuses on progress and content, the CONTAINER metaphor highlights the content and the basic of an argument, the BUILDING metaphor captures the aspects of the construction of an argument and its strength. This means, when a concept has several aspects and the metaphor focuses on one or some aspects, the other aspects will remain hidden or out of focus. Such as in WAR metaphor highlights aspects of control over argument and hides aspects such content, construction, and progress. Therefore, different metaphors may highlights different features of the same target concept and at the same time hide its other features.34
2.2 Function of Metaphorical Expression
The only function of language would be to expound knowledge and pass information, in order to facilitate cooperation between members of society. Information much more be conveyed by using metaphor through implication and connotation, than through straightforward or
Ibid, p. 33 34
literal language.35 When using metaphorical expression, listeners interpret less narrowly than they would literal language. Therefore, meaning is communicated between speaker and listener in a less precise way, even though the metaphors may seem concrete and vivid. It is imprecision, which makes metaphors such a powerful tool in the communication of emotion, evaluation and explanation. According to Leech there are five functions of metaphorical language, they are: information, expression, direction, aesthetic and phatic.
The used of metaphorical expression has the function to convey information which everyone tends to assume it is important that deliver from speaker to listener. The characteristic of this function is the implicit characterization in the message that conveyed. This function is usually contains an idea, belief, certainty, anger, fear, anxiety and courage.
The used of metaphorical expression has the function to
expressing the speaker‟s or writer‟s feelings or attitudes- swear words and exclamations are the most obvious example for this function. The content of metaphorical expression contains the
speaker‟s expectation and desire to the listener. The
characteristic of this function is the implicit intention that indicates direction, suggestion or expectation.
The used of metaphorical expression has the function to influence the behavior or attitudes of others. The characteristic of this function is shown by command and request, instruction, threat or question. This function of social control places
emphasis on the listener‟s end, rather than the speaker‟s end of
message. 4. Phatic
The used of metaphorical expression has the function to maintaining social bonds. The characteristic of this function is by keeping the communication lines open between social members (speaker and listener) and keeping the social relationships in good condition.
The used of metaphorical expression has the function to creating artistic effect.
Systematization of this analysis began with finding and collecting metaphorical expression through selecting the metaphorical linguistic expression that leads to analyzing set of mapping between source domain and target domain. It is these mappings that provide much of the meaning of the metaphorical linguistic expression that make a particular conceptual
metaphor manifest. The result from mapping process will be adjusted with the experiential bases knowledge and limited to the context situation in which inaugural addresses delivered to receive the meaning and also its function.
CHAPTER III RESEARCH FINDINGS
A. DATA DESCRIPTION
In this research, the technique of data collecting is using bibliography technique. The data are collected by using written sources from the transcript of four inaugural addresses. There are 35 data found in the transcript and after the process of random sampling, 18 of them consist of 8 data from Bush and 10 data from Obama, were picked up as the chosen data that will be analyzed in this chapter. The 18 data will be classified based on the 9 concepts that are found from the mostly represent the data. The data will be analyzed by using qualitative method with explaining the mapping process to convey the similarities in each concept that lead to understanding the meaning based on the metaphorical expression. The theory of conceptual metaphor from Lakoff and Johnson will be applied in the analysis. This theory indicates the concepts which obtained from the mapping process and the mapping process also lead to the meaning of metaphorical expression. The last analysis is function of metaphorical expression that will be analyzed by using Leech theory consist of five functions of metaphorical expression. Identification of meaning in metaphorical expression will use dictionary Oxford Learner‟s Dictionary as the reference. This reference is to find the lexical meaning and compare with contextual meaning from metaphorical expression which contained in the text speech.
Metaphorical expression, Conceptual metaphor, and Meaning From George W. Bush and Barack Obama Inaugural Addresses
No Metaphorical expression
1. And to all nations, we will speak for the values that
gave our nation birth Bush, 2001 NATION IS PERSON Freedom and liberty Aesthetic and information
2. And I can pledge our nation to a goal: When we
see that wounded traveler on the
road of Jericho, we will not pass to
the other side
NATION IS PERSON
3. We remain a
… Obama , 2009 NATION IS PERSON Existed in long time Direction
4. Our economy
Obama , 2009
CRISIS IS SICK Crisis situation
5. An economic
Obama , 2013
CRISIS IS SICK To enhance economic
6. Our founding
Obama , 2009
NATION IS FAMILY
Leader of a nation
7. … the father of our nation
ordered these words be read
to the people.
Obama , 2009
NATION IS FAMILY
Leader of a nation
8. Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst
gathering clouds and
Obama , 2009 PROBLEM IS STORM Current situation of nation Aesthetic and information
9. …let us brave once more the icy currents,
Obama , 2009 PROBLEM IS STORM Nation‟s problem Aesthetic and expression
10. And then there came a day of
FIRE IS ATTACK 9/11 Attack Aesthetic
11. By our efforts we have lit a fire as well; a
fire in the minds of men
SPIRIT IS FIRE Resistance of attack
Aesthetic and information
12. And one day this untamed fire of freedom
will reach the darkest corners
of our world
SPIRIT IS FIRE Revolution Information
13. And even after nearly 225 years, we have
LIFE IS JOURNEY
The long process of
long way yet to
14. So, let us mark this day in remembrance of who we are
and how far
we have travel.
Obama , 2009 LIFE IS JOURNEY The long journey of Black people Expression
15. Now, it is a seed upon the
wind, taking rootin many
nations. Bush, 2001 RELATIONSHIP IS PLANTING Influence other nation Aesthetic
16. To those leaders around the globe who
seek to sow
conflict… Obama , 2009 RELATIONSHIP IS PLANTING Spread conflict Aesthetic
17. Much time has
Jefferson arrived for his
18. The time has
reaffirm our enduring
Obama , 2009
TIME IS PERSON Happened Information
B. DATA ANALYSIS
The analysis begins with conceptual metaphor categorization using capital letters which is the outcome of the classification from metaphorical expression that consisted in metaphorical text. Then, analysis continues with the mapping from source and target domain of conceptual metaphor that lead to the analysis of meaning and its function.
3.1NATION IS PERSON
There are three data represent the concept NATION IS PERSON. The conceptual metaphor NATION IS PERSON is derived from the mapping process based on the metaphorical expression found in data card number 3, 4 and 32.
a. Datum 1 no. 3:
“And to all nations, we will speak for the values that gave our nation birth.”
In datum (1) the metaphorical expression nation birth described that the nation reflected as a person. Officially, birth is used to explain the very
beginning process of a person‟s life, but here the metaphorical expression „birth‟ is used to „nation‟ which nation is obviously not a person. Nation has
the similar process, in which comprehended as a person‟s birth experience.
NATION and PERSON are two things that have different conceptual domain. Therefore, there is a cross domain conceptual mapping between these two.
Birth is the beginning part of a person‟s life understood as the same starting point of nation‟s life. The target domain NATION is conceived in source
domain PERSON. NATION is constructed as a person and conceptually can experience the same process as PERSON do.
The metaphorical expression nation birth here does not literary mean the birth of a nation, but the existence of something in the nation. Based on the context, the nation birth means the existence of liberty, because America is strongly believe in freedom and liberty. It is seen from the previous explanation of Bush statement saying that America will strive against other nation which does not support freedom and liberty. Bush also emphasized that America will only accept cooperation with other nations that give a big
opportunity to America‟s freedom. Moreover, Bush also assumed that
America gives a great contribution in history especially in freedom, because America is the land where everyone escapes from their homeland across the ocean seeking for liberty.
This metaphor has the function of aesthetic and information. The information function is to inform a certainty to American citizens that America still remains as the land of liberty.
b. Datum 2 no. 4:
“And I can pledge our nation to a goal: When we see that wounded
traveler on the road of Jericho, we will not pass to the other side.” Explanation:
In datum (2), the metaphorical expression we see shows that the
„nation‟ is perceived as a „person‟. Nation is constructed as a person who has
the basic ability to see, hear, smell, touch and taste. NATION and PERSON are two things that have different conceptual domains. Therefore, there is a cross domain conceptual mapping between these two. The target domain NATION is conceived in source domain PERSON. NATION is constructed as a person and conceptually can experience the same basic and social ability as PERSON do.
The origin of this sentence comes from the bible about the Samaritans who help the wounded traveler from other region. According to the previous explanation, this statement indirectly saying that America will conveniently
help when there‟s another nation that needs some help without seeing other nation‟s differences. Jericho is a town of Jordan near the Dead Sea. Ancient Jericho was the first town which the Israelites saw when they entered the promise land. Therefore, the wounded traveler here means the Israelis. This metaphorical language has an aesthetic function that creates an artistic effect,
because this metaphor is originated from bible that usually has a lot of metaphor
c. Datum 3 no. 32:
“We remain a young nation, but in the words of Scripture, the time has come to set aside childish things.”
In datum (3) the metaphorical expression young nations shows that the
„nation‟ can experience the same way with „person‟ who remains as young and old too. Officially, „young‟ is used to indicate the age of a person, but in here „young‟ is used to „nation‟. NATION and PERSON are two things that
have different conceptual domain. Therefore, there is a cross domain
conceptual mapping between these two, in which nation‟s age usually
counting from day of independence. The target domain NATION is conceived in source domain PERSON. NATION is constructed as a person and conceptually can experience the same way as PERSON which day of
independence comprehended as nation‟s day of birth.
Obama compared the characteristic of a young person with a nation. It is the childish character which shows by the sentence to set aside childish things. The meaning of young is that a nation existed for only a short time. The meaning of this metaphorical sentence explained in the later sentence, that America is not a young nation to do the unimportant things. Therefore, Obama told the citizens that America needs to focus only on the important things to make an improvement and also maintain freedom in their nation. The function
of this metaphorical sentence is direction function, because Obama gave the instruction to the citizens that American needs to be mature in order to give great participation in their country.
Table 3.1.1 Mapping of NATION IS PERSON
The independence day of a nation is
the starting point of the nation‟s life
The day of birth of a person is the
beginning part of that person‟s life
The age of a nation counting from the independence day
The age of a person counting from the day of birth
Every nation has different culture that leads to different way of thinking
Every person has a different personality
The mapping in table 3.1.1 above explained the relations between the source domain PERSON and the target domain NATION. The mapping highlighted the human attributes in source domain PERSON which applied to target domain NATION.
3.2CRISIS IS SICK
There are two data represent the concept CRISIS IS SICK. The conceptual metaphor CRISIS IS SICK is derived from the mapping process based on the metaphorical expressions found in data number 19 and 33.
d. Datum 4 no. 19:
“Our economy is badly weakened, a consequence of greed and irresponsibility on the part of some but also our collective failure to make
hard choices and prepare the nation for a new age.” Explanation:
In datum (4) the metaphorical expression badly weakened shows that
the „crisis‟ is reflected as „sick‟. Officially, weakened is used to describe the lacking physical strength of body that leads to sick, but here the metaphorical
„badly weakened‟ is used to „crisis‟. CRISIS and SICK are two things with
different conceptual domain. Therefore, there is a cross domain conceptual mapping between these two. The target domain CRISIS is conceived in source domain SICK. CRISIS is constructed as sick and conceptually can experience the same condition as SICK, which showed that economic crisis can be described as the condition of sick body.
The meaning of metaphorical expression badly weakened is crisis condition in economy. It can be seen from the previous sentence which explained that economic situation in America is on crisis, because of the invasion to Iraq commanded by former president George W. Bush. Therefore, this crisis would be the main duty for Barack Obama in his first presidential period and immediately prepare to start a better age. The function of metaphorical expression here is to inform anxiety about the crisis situation of
e. Datum 5 no. 33:
“An economic recoveryhas begun.” Explanation:
In datum (5) the metaphorical expression recovery shows that the
„crisis‟ is reflected as „sick‟. Literally, recovery is used to describe a return
process to a normal state of health from sick condition, but here the
metaphorical „recovery‟ is used to „crisis‟ which crisis is obviously not related
to human body that needs to be recovered, but the process of recovery can be understood conceptually in economic process. CRISIS and SICK are two things with different conceptual domain. Therefore, there is a cross domain conceptual mapping between these two. The target domain CRISIS is conceived in source domain SICK. CRISIS is constructed as a SICK and conceptually can experience the same condition as SICK.
The metaphorical expression recovery here is usually used to describe a healing treatment of human body after illness which refers to crisis condition. The meaning of recovery is to enhance economy condition. It can be seen from the previous sentence saying that the invasion to Iraq has been stopped because this invasion cost a lot that resulted unstable economic condition. Therefore, Obama tried to start economic recovery to resolve the economic complications as a consequence of the invasion. The function of this metaphorical expression is to inform citizens that the invasion has ended and this is the time to fix the unstable economic condition that caused many problems in America.
Table 3.2.1 Mapping of CRISIS IS SICK
Crisis is a disease that can infects to an economic situation in a nation
Sick is lack physical strength that can weaken the immune system of body
To reform economic crisis needs some regulation to control the economic situation
To cure a disease needs a suitable treatment to heal the body
Unstable economic condition may leads to the economic crisis in a nation
Weak physical condition of human body can easily infected by many disease
The mapping in table 3.2.1 above explained the relations between the source domain SICK and the target domain CRISIS. The mapping highlighted the physical condition in source domain SICK which applied to target domain CRISIS.
3.3NATION AS FAMILY
There are two data represent the concept NATION AS FAMILY. The conceptual metaphor NATION AS FAMILY is derived from the mapping process based on the metaphorical expression found in data number 23 and 30.
f. Datum 6 no. 23:
“Our founding fathers faced with perils that we can scarcely imagine, drafted a charter to assure the rule of law and the rights of man, a charter expanded by the blood of generations.”
In datum (6) the metaphorical expression fathers indicates that the
nation reflected as family. „Father‟ is literally means the leader of a family, but in here „father‟ is used to „nation‟, which nation has totally different concept
with „family‟. NATION and FAMILY are two things that have different
conceptual domain; therefore there is a cross domain conceptual mapping between these two. The target domain NATION is conceived in source domain FAMILY. NATION is constructed as family and conceptually can experience the same function as FAMILY.
The meaning of a father is quite same as the literal father who is in this metaphorical word fathers, is considered as the leader in a nation, because there is a same experience between a nation and a family. Therefore, based on the sentence context, founding fathers means the leaders who establish a nation and responsible to protecting the nation by making such regulations to the people of America. The function of this metaphorical expression is to inform the courage of founding fathers in fighting for this nation by drafted a charter to assure the rule of law and the rights of this nation.
g. Datum 7 no. 30:
“At a moment when the outcome of our revolution was most in doubt, the
father of our nation ordered these words be read to the people.”
In datum (7) the metaphorical expression shows case of metaphor by
using noun „fathers‟ for its object „nation‟. It indicates that the nation reflected as family. Father is literally means the leader of a family, but in here „father‟ is
used to „nation‟, which nation has totally different concept with „family‟.
NATION and FAMILY are two things that have different conceptual domain. Therefore, there is a cross domain conceptual mapping between these two that is a nation conceived as family, in which a family consists of some members to form a family, such as father that has the same function to lead a nation. The target domain NATION is conceived in source domain FAMILY. NATION is constructed as family and conceptually can experience the same function as FAMILY.
The meaning of metaphorical expression father in this datum is just same with the previous one. The father of a nation is considered as metaphor, because father usually related to family bond, but in this occasion this metaphor is to treat the leader of a nation as a father. The leader of a nation has the same function as father. It is seen from the sentence that the father of our nation ordered these words be read to the people. In this statement, it seems that a father is giving some advices to be understood by the children. This metaphorical expression is included in the function of direction to
influence the citizens of America to follow the instruction from the father of a nation when the nation situation is in doubt.
Table 3.3.1 Mapping of NATION AS FAMILY
Homeland is the place where citizens are stay to live
Home is the place where a family stay together
Government is the leader of a nation who has the authority to make such regulations and decisions
Father has the highest status in a family and also responsible to his family
The citizens have to follow the rule that government has made
The children of the family has to obey the rule from their father
The mapping in table 3.3.1 above explained the relation between the source domain FAMILY and the target domain NATION. The mapping highlighted function of family member in source domain FAMILY which applied to target domain NATION.
3.4 PROBLEM IS STORM
There are two data represent the concept PROBLEM IS STORM. The conceptual metaphor PROBLEM IS STORM is derived from the mapping process based on the metaphorical linguistic expression found in data number 18 and 31.
h. Datum 8 no. 18:
“Yet, every so often the oath is taken amidst gathering clouds and raging storm.”
In datum (8) the metaphorical expression gathering clouds and raging storms usually refer to a bad weather situation. STORM and PROBLEM are two things that have very different conceptual domain. Therefore, there is a cross domain conceptual mapping between these two. Storm is a violent disturbance of the atmosphere with strong winds and usually rain, thunder, lightning, or snow, but in here the metaphorical expressions „gathering clouds
and „raging storm‟ are used to describe the „problem‟ which problem is obviously not related to „storm‟. The target domain PROBLEM is conceived
in source domain STORM, which some experiences in problem are described by storm. The literally indication of bad weather that may come and usually seen from gathering clouds in a region and then lead by wind, rain, and thunder that cause storm.
The metaphor meaning in this sentence seen from the previous sentence which explained about the recent situation of the nation that refers to the problem of social and leads to economic problem as a consequence of
America‟s invasion in Iraq which has the strong perceptions as gathering clouds and raging storms. Therefore, the meaning of gathering clouds is the social problem and raging storms means economical problem that recently happened in America. This metaphoric expression has the aesthetic to create
an artistic effect and information function which shows his anxiety about the inaugural address held in a complicated socio-economic situation that has the representation of bad weather.
i. Datum 9 no. 31:
“America in the face of our common dangers, in this winter of our
hardship, let us remember these timeless words; with hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come; let
it be said by our children‟s children that when we were tested we refused
to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God‟s grace upon us, we carried forth
that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations.” Explanation:
In datum (9) the metaphoric expression storms has the same meaning as the previous data. STORM and PROBLEM are two things that have very different conceptual domain. Therefore, there is a cross domain conceptual mapping between these two. Storm is uncontrolled atmospheric condition, but
in here the metaphorical expression „storms‟ is used to describe the „nation problem‟ which problem comprehended or has the similar concept with storm. Officially, storm is a violent disturbance of the atmosphere with strong winds and usually rain, thunder, lightning or snow. The target domain PROBLEM is conceived in source domain STORM, which some bad situation in problem described by storm.
Storm has a strong perception of a bad weather in some areas that may cause some problem. Metaphorically the storms meaning is the problem in that may encounter by this nation. This metaphorical expression has the function of aesthetic to create an artistic effect expression which Obama‟s main purpose is express an exclamation to the people of America to always remember the timeless words delivered from Thomas Paine in 1776 which explained the same crisis condition when America was planning to have revolution and struggling to get independence from British, although the
America‟s recently crisis is actually different from what Thomas Paine
experienced, but Obama emphasized that people of America have to keep their courage when enduring and facing the crisis that may come.
Table 3.4.1 Mapping of PROBLEM IS STORM
Problem is a harmful situation that can effect political situation in a nation
Storm is an extreme weather condition that can damage a region
Problem in a nation has some indications that may cause crisis
Storm has some indications such as gather clouds, winds, thunder etc.
The mapping in table 3.4.1 above explained the relation between the source domain STORM and the target domain PROBLEM. The mapping highlighted the bad condition in source domain STORM which applied to target domain PROBLEM.
3.5FIRE IS ATTACK
There is one datum represent the concept FIRE IS ATTACK. The conceptual metaphor FIRE IS ATTACK is derived from the mapping process based on the metaphorical expression found in data number 17.
j. Datum 10 no. 17:
“And then there came a day of fire.”
In datum (10) the metaphorical language a day of fire described that the fire reflected as an attack. The target domain FIRE is conceived in source domain ATTACK. FIRE is constructed as attack and conceptually has the same experiential bases with ATTACK. The target domain FIRE is conceived in source domain ATTACK, which both of conceptual domains has the similarity in destructive attributes.
The meaning of this metaphorical expression is the continuation of the preceding paragraph which means the day of 9/11 when there was an attack by plane crashed over the World Trade Center twin tower in New York, in September 11 2001. It can be seen from the previous sentence, it is explained that the world has been relatively quiet after the down of communism and the end of World War, until the 9/11 Attack finally disturb this temporary peace that leads to the invasion of Iraq. Bush also assumed that this attack has been planned before and intended to destruct American freedom and declared this attack as war. This metaphoric language has the function of aesthetic in creating artistic analogy of a big attack.
Table 3.5.1 Mapping of FIRE IS ATTACK
The character of fire is caused destruction and dangerous if the fire has huge capacity.
An attack always caused serious destruction in the area of attacking.
Destruction effect of fire always physical and also can be emotional if the destroyed things have possessive quality.
The effect of an attack can be both physical and emotional toward the country that been attacked.
The mapping in table 3.5.1 above explained the relation between the source domain ATTACK and the target domain FIRE. The mapping
highlighted the characteristic and effect of source domain ATTACK which applied to target domain FIRE.
3.6SPIRIT IS FIRE
There are two data represent the concept SPIRIT IS FIRE. The conceptual metaphor SPIRIT IS FIRE is derived from the mapping process based on the metaphorical expression found in data number 10 and 11.
k. Datum 11 no. 10:
In datum (11) the metaphorical expression lit a fire described that the fire reflected as spirit. The target domain FIRE is conceived in source domain SPIRIT. FIRE is constructed as spirit and conceptually has the same experiential bases with SPIRIT. The target domain FIRE is conceived in source domain SPIRIT, which both of conceptual domains has the similarity in fire flaming attributes which burning fire can be easily spread by substance combine chemically with oxygen that the process of spread comprehended as provocation.
The meaning of the metaphorical expression is the continuation of the 9/11 Attack. Based on the context sentence, the meaning of this metaphor is preparing resistance. It is the American spirit of resistance as a consequence of the 9/11 attack. This attack heated up the situation, because it caused not only great destruction in the most influential building in America, but also so much innocence victims. This metaphorical expression has two functions, information and aesthetic. The information function is to inform the courage of America in fights against the terrorism. The aesthetic function is to create an artistic language that may attract the listener.
l. Datum 12 no. 11:
“And one day this untamed fire of freedom will reach the darkest corners of our world.”
In datum (12) the metaphorical expression of untamed fire literally means that this fire will spread easily when the fire has strong enough of chemical power. Untamed fire described that the fire reflected as spirit. The target domain FIRE is conceived in source domain SPIRIT. FIRE is constructed as attack and conceptually has the same experiential bases with SPIRIT. The target domain FIRE is conceived in source domain SPIRIT, which both of conceptual domains has the similarity in strength.
Metaphorically this untamed fire means revolution. America insists the revolution of freedom and liberty in many countries to fight against the act of terrorism. According to the later paragraph that America is trying to spread freedom in every country and also in Middle West country and fight against other countries which refused to get in a way of freedom in America. The function of this metaphoric language is to inform the people of America about the idea of freedom revolution around the world.
Table 3.6.1 Mapping of SPIRIT IS FIRE
Spirit can be raised Fire can be made Spirit can affect others widely from
one person to another
Fire can spread widely even it begins from small fire
The mapping in table 3.6.1 above explained the relation between the source domain FIRE and the target domain SPIRIT. The mapping highlighted the characteristic of source domain FIRE which applied to target domain SPIRIT.
3.7LIFE IS JOURNEY
There are two data represent the concept LIFE IS JOURNEY. The conceptual metaphor LIFE IS JOURNEY is derived from the mapping process based on the metaphorical expression found in data number 5 and 27.
m. Datum 13 no. 5:
“And even after nearly 225 years, we have long way yet to travel.” Explanation:
In datum (13) the metaphorical expression we have long way yet to travel shows the concept of a journey that described the nation‟s journey. The metaphorical expression described that the nation‟s life reflected as journey. Officially, the expression „we have long way yet to travel‟ belongs to the long process of a journey, but here that metaphorical expression is used to describe
nation‟s life. Which nation‟s life is obviously not a journey. LIFE and
JOURNEY are two things that have different conceptual domain. Therefore, the metaphorical expression indicates that the nation‟s life reflected as journey. The target domain LIFE is conceived in source domain JOURNEY. LIFE is constructed as JOURNEY and conceptually has the same experiential bases process as JOURNEY.
We honor them not only because they are guardians of our liberty, but because they embody the spirit of service: a willingness to find meaning in something greater than themselves.
And yet, at this moment, a moment that will define a generation, it is precisely this spirit that must inhabit us all.
For as much as government can do and must do, it is ultimately the faith and determination of the American people upon which this nation relies.
It is the kindness to take in a stranger when the levees break; the selflessness of workers who would rather cut their hours than see a friend lose their job which sees us through our darkest hours.
It is the firefighter's courage to storm a stairway filled with smoke, but also a parent's willingness to nurture a child, that finally decides our fate.
Our challenges may be new, the instruments with which we meet them may be new, but those values upon which our success depends, honesty and hard work, courage and fair play, tolerance and curiosity, loyalty and patriotism -- these things are old.
These things are true. They have been the quiet force of progress throughout our history. What is demanded then is a return to these truths. What is required of us now is a new era of responsibility -- a recognition, on the part of every American, that we have duties to ourselves, our nation and the world, duties that we do not grudgingly accept but rather seize gladly, firm in the knowledge that there is nothing so satisfying to the spirit, so defining of our character than giving our all to a difficult task.
This is the price and the promise of citizenship.
This is the source of our confidence: the knowledge that God calls on us to shape an uncertain destiny.
This is the meaning of our liberty and our creed, why men and women and children of every race and every faith can join in celebration across this magnificent mall. And why a man whose father less than 60 years ago might not have been served at a local restaurant can now stand before you to take a most sacred oath.
So let us mark this day in remembrance of who we are and how far we have traveled (datum 14).
In the year of America's birth, in the coldest of months, a small band of patriots huddled by nine campfires on the shores of an icy river.
The capital was abandoned. The enemy was advancing. The snow was stained with blood. At a moment when the outcome of our revolution was most in doubt, the father of our nation (datum 7)ordered these words be read to the people:
"Let it be told to the future world that in the depth of winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive, that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to meet it."
America, in the face of our common dangers, in this winter of our hardship, let us remember these timeless words; with hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come (datum 9); let it be said by our children's children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God's grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations. Thank you. God bless you. And God bless the United States of America.
Barack Obama Second Inaugural Address
Washington, D.C. January 21, 2013
Vice President Biden, Mr. Chief Justice, members of the United States Congress, distinguished guests, and fellow citizens:
Each time we gather to inaugurate a President we bear witness to the enduring strength of our Constitution. We affirm the promise of our democracy. We recall that what binds this nation together is not the colors of our skin or the tenets of our faith or the origins of our names. What makes us exceptional -- what makes us American -- is our allegiance to an idea articulated in a declaration made more than two centuries ago:
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
Today we continue a never-ending journey to bridge the meaning of those words with the realities of our time. For history tells us that while these truths may be self-evident, they've never been self-executing; that while freedom is a gift from God, it must be secured by His people here on Earth. The patriots of 1776 did not fight to replace the tyranny of a king with the privileges of a few or the rule of a mob. They gave to us a republic, a government of, and by, and for the people, entrusting each generation to keep safe our founding creed.
And for more than two hundred years, we have.
Through blood drawn by lash and blood drawn by sword, we learned that no union
founded on the principles of liberty and equality could survive half-slave and half-free. We made ourselves anew, and vowed to move forward together.
Together, we determined that a modern economy requires railroads and highways to speed travel and commerce, schools and colleges to train our workers.
Together, we discovered that a free market only thrives when there are rules to ensure competition and fair play.
Together, we resolved that a great nation must care for the vulnerable, and protect its people from life's worst hazards and misfortune.
Through it all, we have never relinquished our skepticism of central authority, nor have we succumbed to the fiction that all society's ills can be cured through government alone. Our celebration of initiative and enterprise, our insistence on hard work and personal
responsibility, these are constants in our character.
But we have always understood that when times change, so must we; that fidelity to our founding principles requires new responses to new challenges; that preserving our individual freedoms ultimately requires collective action. For the American people can no
more meet the demands of today's world by acting alone than American soldiers could have met the forces of fascism or communism with muskets and militias. No single person can train all the math and science teachers we'll need to equip our children for the future, or build the roads and networks and research labs that will bring new jobs and businesses to our shores. Now, more than ever, we must do these things together, as one nation and one people.
This generation of Americans has been tested by crises that steeled our resolve and proved our resilience. A decade of war is now ending. An economic recovery (datum 5) has begun. America's possibilities are limitless, for we possess all the qualities that this world without boundaries demands: youth and drive; diversity and openness; an endless capacity for risk and a gift for reinvention. My fellow Americans, we are made for this moment, and we will seize it -- so long as we seize it together.
For we, the people, understand that our country cannot succeed when a shrinking few do very well and a growing many barely make it. We believe that America's prosperity must rest upon the broad shoulders of a rising middle class. We know that America thrives when every person can find independence and pride in their work; when the wages of honest labor liberate families from the brink of hardship. We are true to our creed when a little girl born into the bleakest poverty knows that she has the same chance to succeed as anybody else, because she is an American; she is free, and she is equal, not just in the eyes of God but also in our own.
We understand that outworn programs are inadequate to the needs of our time. So we must harness new ideas and technology to remake our government, revamp our tax code, reform our schools, and empower our citizens with the skills they need to work harder, learn more, reach higher. But while the means will change, our purpose endures: a nation that rewards the effort and determination of every single American. That is what this moment requires. That is what will give real meaning to our creed.
We, the people, still believe that every citizen deserves a basic measure of security and dignity. We must make the hard choices to reduce the cost of health care and the size of our deficit. But we reject the belief that America must choose between caring for the generation that built this country and investing in the generation that will build its future. For we remember the lessons of our past, when twilight years were spent in poverty and parents of a child with a disability had nowhere to turn.
We do not believe that in this country freedom is reserved for the lucky, or happiness for the few. We recognize that no matter how responsibly we live our lives, any one of us at any time may face a job loss, or a sudden illness, or a home swept away in a terrible storm. The commitments we make to each other through Medicare and Medicaid and Social Security, these things do not sap our initiative, they strengthen us. They do not make us a nation of takers; they free us to take the risks that make this country great. We, the people, still believe that our obligations as Americans are not just to ourselves, but to all posterity. We will respond to the threat of climate change, knowing that the failure to do so would betray our children and future generations. Some may still deny the overwhelming judgment of science, but none can avoid the devastating impact of raging fires and crippling drought and more powerful storms.
The path towards sustainable energy sources will be long and sometimes difficult. But America cannot resist this transition, we must lead it. We cannot cede to other nations the
technology that will power new jobs and new industries, we must claim its promise. That's how we will maintain our economic vitality and our national treasure -- our forests and waterways, our crop lands and snow-capped peaks. That is how we will preserve our planet, commanded to our care by God. That's what will lend meaning to the creed our fathers once declared.
We, the people, still believe that enduring security and lasting peace do not require perpetual war. Our brave men and women in uniform, tempered by the flames of battle, are unmatched in skill and courage. Our citizens, seared by the memory of those we have lost, know too well the price that is paid for liberty. The knowledge of their sacrifice will keep us forever vigilant against those who would do us harm. But we are also heirs to those who won the peace and not just the war; who turned sworn enemies into the surest of friends -- and we must carry those lessons into this time as well.
We will defend our people and uphold our values through strength of arms and rule of law. We will show the courage to try and resolve our differences with other nations peacefully -- not because we are naïve about the dangers we face, but because engagement can more durably lift suspicion and fear.
America will remain the anchor of strong alliances in every corner of the globe. And we will renew those institutions that extend our capacity to manage crisis abroad, for no one has a greater stake in a peaceful world than its most powerful nation. We will support
democracy from Asia to Africa, from the Americas to the Middle East, because our interests and our conscience compel us to act on behalf of those who long for freedom. And we must be a source of hope to the poor, the sick, the marginalized, the victims of prejudice -- not out of mere charity, but because peace in our time requires the constant advance of those principles that our common creed describes: tolerance and opportunity, human dignity and justice.
We, the people, declare today that the most evident of truths -- that all of us are created equal -- is the star that guides us still; just as it guided our forebears through Seneca Falls, and Selma, and Stonewall; just as it guided all those men and women, sung and unsung, who left footprints along this great Mall, to hear a preacher say that we cannot walk alone; to hear a King proclaim that our individual freedom is inextricably bound to the freedom of every soul on Earth.
It is now our generation's task to carry on what those pioneers began. For our journey is not complete until our wives, our mothers and daughters can earn a living equal to their efforts. Our journey is not complete until our gay brothers and sisters are treated like anyone else under the law for if we are truly created equal, then surely the love we commit to one another must be equal as well. Our journey is not complete until no citizen is forced to wait for hours to exercise the right to vote. Our journey is not complete until we find a better way to welcome the striving, hopeful immigrants who still see America as a land of opportunity until bright young students and engineers are enlisted in our
workforce rather than expelled from our country. Our journey is not complete until all our children, from the streets of Detroit to the hills of Appalachia, to the quiet lanes of Newtown, know that they are cared for and cherished and always safe from harm.
That is our generation's task -- to make these words, these rights, these values of life and liberty and the pursuit of happiness real for every American. Being true to our founding documents does not require us to agree on every contour of life. It does not mean we all define liberty in exactly the same way or follow the same precise path to happiness.
Progress does not compel us to settle centuries-long debates about the role of government for all time, but it does require us to act in our time.
For now decisions are upon us and we cannot afford delay. We cannot mistake absolutism for principle, or substitute spectacle for politics, or treat name-calling as reasoned debate. We must act, knowing that our work will be imperfect. We must act, knowing that today's victories will be only partial and that it will be up to those who stand here in four years and 40 years and 400 years hence to advance the timeless spirit once conferred to us in a spare Philadelphia hall.
My fellow Americans, the oath I have sworn before you today, like the one recited by others who serve in this Capitol, was an oath to God and country, not party or faction. And we must faithfully execute that pledge during the duration of our service. But the words I spoke today are not so different from the oath that is taken each time a soldier signs up for duty or an immigrant realizes her dream. My oath is not so different from the pledge we all make to the flag that waves above and that fills our hearts with pride.
They are the words of citizens and they represent our greatest hope. You and I, as citizens, have the power to set this country's course. You and I, as citizens, have the obligation to shape the debates of our time -- not only with the votes we cast, but with the voices we lift in defense of our most ancient values and enduring ideals.
Let us, each of us, now embrace with solemn duty and awesome joy what is our lasting birthright. With common effort and common purpose, with passion and dedication, let us answer the call of history and carry into an uncertain future that precious light of freedom. Thank you. God bless you, and may He forever bless these United States of America.