The effectiveness of using jigsaw technique in teaching speaking
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers Training in Partial Fulfillment
the Requirements for Degree of S.Pd. in English Language Education
Approved by the Advisors
(Xrx,,-,*Dr. Atiq Susilo. M.A
NIP: 19491 122197 8031001
Dr. Alek. M.Pd.
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHER'S TRAINING
STATE ISLAMrc UNIYERSITY SYARIF IIIDAYATUI,LAH
Rusandi, student's regishation number 109014000106 was examined
bythe committee on January 19,2015. The "skripsi" has been accepted and declared to have
fulfilled one of the requirements for Degree of "S.Pd" (Bachelor of Education) in English Language Education at the English Departrnent.
Chairman: Drs. Svauki. M.
NIP. 196412r2 r99r03
Secretary: Zaharil Anasv.IVI. Hum
NrP. 19761 007 2007 r0
I:Ismalianine Evivuliwati. M;ffum.
NIP. 19740723 200003 2 00r
II:Zaharil Anasv. M, HuEq NrP. 19761007 2007t0
Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training
Jakarta, 3 February 2015
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYASENDTRI
Saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini,
Tempat/Tgl. Lahir NIM
Jurusan/Prodi Judul Skripsi
Taufik Rusandi Jakarta/3 Juni 1991
Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris/ Sl
ofUsing Jigsaw Technique in Teaching Speaking
: 1. Dr. Atiq Susilo, M.A. 2.Dr. Alek, M.Pd.
inimenyatakan bahwa skripsi yang saya buat benar-benar hasil karya saya sendiri dan saya bertanggung jawab secara akademis atas apa yang saya tulis.
Pernyataan ini dibuat sebagai salah satu syarat menempuh ujian munaqasah.
Taufik Rusandi NIM. 109014000106 Jakarta, Januari 2015 Yang Menyatakan
Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2014.
Keywords: The Effectiveness Jigsaw Technique, Teaching English Speaking in
Junior High School.
This research has a purpose to get the empirical evidance about effect of jigsaw technique on in teaching speaking by seeing quality and quantity of discussion and telling story in the class. After the data collected, the writer analyzed the data to see different of rising speaking ability on students by calculating the achievment of pre test and post test to get the score of t-test, the score of t-test is used to know the significant difference from two samples.
From the finding of the study, it can be conclude that the Jigsaw technique gave significant rising on speaking ability. The communication and interaction in the class give positive effect in speaking learning. Grammatical and pronunciation which are learnt by theories, with Jigsaw technique that elements are learnt by together and the experience of mistakes will be fixed by learning in communicating in the class. the learning with high interaction and not bored made the students were enthusiastic in learning.
With the result that, the writer hope in globalization era which is asked every single person has a competence in English communication to be success. The teacher must has a competence to create our students especially from junior high school must have a competence in English, and they used English as communication tool in the class.
Kata kunci: Efek Jigsaw Teknik, Pengajaran Berbahasa inggris di SMP.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bukti empiris tentang efek penggunaan teknik jigsaw terhadap kemampuan berbahasa inggris siswa dengan melihat kuantitas dan kualitas berdiskusi dan menceritakan cerita di kelas. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kuantitatif. Dengan mengumpulkan hasil data dari test kemampuan berbicara yang di dapat dari partisipan. Instrument yang di gunakan sebagai pre test berbentuk test oral dengan menceritakan cerita naratif yang telah di bagikan dan di baca oleh masing masing siswa. Setelah data terkumpul, penulis menganalisis data untuk melihat berbagai peningkatan kemampuan berbahasa pada siswa dengan cara menghitung nilai pre test dan post test untuk mendapatkan nilai t-test, nilai t-test di gunakan untuk mengetahui ada nya perbedaan yang signifikan dari dua sample.
Dari temuan penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa teknik Jigsaw memberikan peningkatan yang signifikan pada kemampuan berbicara. Komunikasi dan interaksi di kelas memberikan efek positif dalam belajar berbicara. Tata bahasa dan pengucapan yang dipelajari dengan teori-teori sebelum nya, dengan teknik Jigsaw unsur tersebut dipelajari secara bersama-sama dan pengalaman kesalahan akan diperbaiki dengan belajar dalam berkomunikasi di kelas. pembelajaran dengan interaksi yang tinggi dan tidak bosan membuat siswa antusias dalam belajar.
Dengan hasil itu, penulis berharap di era globalisasi yang meminta setiap orang memiliki kompetensi dalam komunikasi bahasa Inggris bisa menjadi sukses. Guru harus memiliki kompetensi untuk membuat siswa kami terutama dari SMP harus memiliki kompetensi dalam bahasa Inggris, dan mereka terbiasa untuk berbicara bahasa Inggris sebagai alat komunikasi di kelas
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. All praises be to Allah, the Lord of the world who has given the Mercy and Blessing upon the writer in completing this paper. Peace and salutation be upon the prophet Muhammad, his family and his followers.
In this occasion, the writer would like to express his greatest appreciation, honour and gratitude to his beloved parents (Muksin and Rusmiyati) and sisters, for their valuable supports and moral encouragement in motivating the writer to finish his study.
The writer also would like to express his deepest gratitude to Dr. Atiq Susilo, M.A and Dr. Alek, M.Pd for their advices, guidances, corrections, and suggestions in finishing this paper.
His gratitude also goes to:
1. All lecturers of Department of English Education who have taught and educated the writer during his study at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta. 2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd., The Head of Department of English Education.
3. Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum., The Secretary of Department of English
4. Drs. NasifuddinJalil, M. Ag as the academic advisor.
5. Maryono M.M.Pd., The Headmaster of SMPN 3 Tangsel, who has given a
great chance to the writer to carry out the research at the school he leads. 6. Agit S.pd, The English teacher of SMPN 3 Tangsel who has helped the
writer in conducting this research.
7. All Second Grade of SMPN 3 Tangsel who had given a contribution for the research.
8. Muh. Ilyas’s Family, Irma Sari Ningsih, Nurhassanah aka Jessica, Mr Rajive Gandhi, Baron Caroline and all Cielers Indonesia for their support more than 5 years.
9. His friends in Department of English Education Academic Year 2009/2010 for sharing their knowledge, times, cares and supports.
10.His Friends and students in Primagama Sugar for sharing their knowledge, times, cares and supports.
11.To any other person who cannot be mentioned one by one for their contribution to the writer during finishing his Skripsi. The words are not enough to say any appreciations for their help.
May Allah bless them for all of what they have done.
Finally, the writer feels that it is really pleasure for him to receive critics and suggestions to make this Paper better. He also hopes that this Paper would be beneficial, particularly for him and for those who are interested in it.
Jakarta, December 13, 2014
ENDORSEMENT SHEET………. ii
SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI... iii
ABSTRAK ... v
TABLE OF CONTENTS... vii
LIST OF TABLES... x
LIST OF APPENDICES... xi
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION... 1
A. Background of the Study. .………... 1
B. Identification of the Problem………... 3
C. Limitation of the Problem………... 4
D. Formulation of the Problem………... 4
E. Purpose of study………... 4
F. Significance of the Study………... 4
CHAPTER II THEORITECAL FRAMEWORK... 5
A. Speaking………... 5
1. The Definition of Speaking…..…………... 5
2. The Elements of Speaking...……... 7
a. Pronunciation... 7
b. Grammar... 9
3. The Problem of Speaking………... 13
B. Jigsaw Technique………... 14
1. Definition of Jigsaw………... 14
2. Procedure of Jigsaw...………... 17
3. The Advantages of Jigsaw... 19
4. The Disadvantages of Jigsaw…....……... 19
C. Teaching Speaking Using Jigsaw Technique... 20
D. Previous Study... 21
E. Conceptual of Framework…….…………... 22
F. Theoretical Hypothesies………... 23
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY... 24
A. Place and Time of the Research…………... 24
B. The Method and Research design………... 24
C. Population and Sample....………... 25
D. The Research Instrument...………... 25
E. The Technique of Data Collection...………... 30
F. The Technique for Data Analysis…………... 30
G. Statistical Hypothesies...………... 32
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS ... 33
A. The Data Description... 33
1. Pre-test Scores... 33
2. Post-test Scores... 35
3. Gained Scores... 37
B. The Data Analysis... 39
1. Mean Variabel X... 41
2. Mean variabel Y... 41
3. Standard Deviation X... 41
6. Standard Error Mean Y... 42
7. Standard Error of Different Mean... 43
8. Determining T... 43
C. Interpretation of the Data... 44
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION... 46
A. Conclusion………... 46
B. Suggestion………... 47
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1... 23
Table 3.2... 25
Table 4.1... 34
Table 4.2... 36
Table 4.3... 38
Appendix 3. Research Instrument (Pre Test and Post test)... 54
Appendix 2. Lesson Plan Pre test and Post test... 63
Appendix 4. Lesson Plan of Experimental Class... 76
Appendix 5. Lesson Plan of Controled Class... 116
Appendix 6. T Table... 152
A. Backgorund of the Study
Speaking is one of the ways to communicate in society. In the world speaking ability is needed to face globalization era. In speaking many aspects must be noticed. Students need ability and comprehention in speaking. As we know, there are four language skills that have to be mastered by students in learning English. They are reading, listening, writing, and speaking. Among those skills, Speaking is one of the skills to be developed and mastered in English language.
Furthermore in Indonesia, English is a foreign language that should be taught from Elementary School. Beside that, Good communication skill in English being a standarization in many institutes and coorporation. As the background, Speaking learning becomes important thing which must be taught in the school. But in the implementation, speaking learning has serious problem because English is still as foreign language in Indonesia. Mostly students is not familiar to speak English. Because of that, the teacher must have special technique to solve problem of speaking learning by using teaching strategy correctly. In famous book Dewey wrote that learning is learning to think and the better way of thinking is reflective thinking. This reflective thinking is involved a process of translation from situation to get the ways to solve it.1 As the student of English education departement, we must know teacher role in the class. Essentially, teachers have two major roles in the classroom: to create the conditions under which learning can take place: the social side of teaching and to impart, by a variety of means, and knowledge to their learners: the task-oriented side of teaching.2
Teachers have a role to conditioning the class as good as possible to make students easier to understand the material in the class. The instructional side of a
Henry .J. Hermanowicz, Problem Solving as Teaching Method, (1961), p. 299. 2
Joachim Appel, Roles of Teachers, a Case Study Based on Diary of Language Teache, (1995), p. 5.
teacher’s role is likely to be goal-oriented, task-dependent, knowledge based and underpinned by a set of attitudes. Not only about knowledge, but also the appropriate instructional strategies to employ in the classroom. The effectiveness in learning is depend on the using of teaching strategy in the class. the strategy of
teacher to solve the problem of students’ learning will give effect and help in reaching the goal of learning. It means that the teacher must have creative methods and models in teaching in to reach the goal learning especially speaking learning in the class.
SMP 3 Tangsel (Tangerang Selatan) is one of junior high school in Tanggerang. It has 3 kind of study class: Acceleration class, Billingual class, And Regular class. Based on the writer observation on PPKT 2013 (Pelatihan Pendidikan Keguruan Terpadu), as the special needs class like Acceleration and Billingual class definitely the teaching stratergy and conditioning of the the class are different with Regular class. It made problem for Regular Class in 3 Junior High School Tanggerang Selatan, mostly students in Regular class was difficult to learning English especially speaking learning. The first problem is because capacity of students in communicate with English was not much and it was in contrast to billingual and acceleration class. Their opportunity to communicate in English did not fulfill in each student, it made the speaking English ability of regular class was not as good as the two classes in that school. The communication and interaction in English is happened only in teacher to students in the class. The second is the learning English in Regular Class was focused on the book and let the students understand from the exercises from teacher. Properly in fact the communication and interaction of English correctly is important for them. the third problem is because English is used as foreign language, it made they were unhabitually to use english as communication in the class. In addition,eighth grade of SMPN 3 Tangsel is using 2013 curricullum. Which is in 2013 curricullum tells that the activity of learning is focused on the students.
Departing the statement above, we need a suitable technique in teaching. There are many techniques that we can apply to increase the speaking ability or achievment on students. One of the techniques that writer wanted to research was
jigsaw technique. Jigsaw technique is one of the technique in cooperative learning which is in the application this technique ask the students spare by a small group with sharing, discussing and creating cooperative activity in the class. Richard M. Felder and Rebecca Brent said in their paper “The idea of students learning is by doing something actively than by simply watching and listening has long been known to both cognitive psychologists and effective teachers and cooperative
learning is by its nature an active method”. 3So in this case, the writer focuses on the effectiveness of using jigsaw technique on students’ speaking ability.
B. Identification of Problem
Based on the background of study above, the problem which is identified as follows:
1. Students have not be accustomed to use English in communication because still using bahasa as communication tools in the class .
2. Lack of communication in the class because Center of knowledege and communicaton still on the teacher.
3. Limited of knowledge about speaking elements: Grammar, pronunciation, accuracy, fluency, and vocabulary because students only got the assignment or exercise from teacher.
C. Limitation of Problem
Based on the identification of problems above, the problems was limited on the technique from cooperative learning method that teacher used in teaching speaking. In this case, the writer uses jigsaw technique.
Formulation of Problem
Based on the limitation of the problem above, the writer formulated the research question as follows; “Is jigsaw technique effective in teaching speaking?”
Richard Felder and Rebecca Brent, Cooperative Learning, (Canada: Department of Chemical Engineering, 2007), p. 2.
Purpose of Study
Purpose of this study is to get the empirical evidance about the effect of jigsaw technique on students’ English in teaching English speaking by seeing quality and quantity of communication by using discussion and telling story in the class.
F. Significance of Study
Theoritically the result of this study expects to be significant for teachers, students and others researchers. This study is expected to show the effect of jigsaw technique in teaching speaking. This study also want to help the students improve their English speaking ability as an active communication tool in the school. The last, this study is expected can be a refrence for the other researcher who want to make a research about effect of jigsaw technique in teaching speaking. Practically this research is recommended for teacher to use Jigsaw technique for teaching English in second grade of junior high school which is appropriate with autonomous learning in Kurikulum 2013.
1. Definition of Speaking
Speaking is important skill in English. To learn speaking, we absolutely need to know the definition of speaking. Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information.1 Effective oral communication requires the ability to use the language appropriately in social interactions. Theodore said that language is essentially speech, and speech is communication by sounds. In addition, speaking is a skill used by someone in daily life communication whether at school or outside.2 From the definition, it can be conclude that speaking is expressing, ideas, opinion, or feeling to other by using words or sounds of articulation in order to inform, to persuade, and to entertain someone or people.
Speaking and interaction become a connection for processing information. But speaking will has problems in communication when the knowledge of language and skills using the knowledge is not created in interaction. According to Bygate, the knowledge of language and skill using the knowledge must be considered in the achievment of a communicative goal.3 Not only on the understanding of that concept, the speaker should be able to use the knowledge in different situations, to decide what to say, saying it clearly and flexible during conversation and creates the second aspect of language. Bygates saw the speaking skill is the result of comprising production skills and interactions skills.
The using of production skills which is said by Bygte is facilitation and compensation, both devices which help students make the oral production possible
David Riddel, Teaching English as a Foreign/ Second Language, (Chicago: McGraw- Companies, 2001), p. 177.
Theodore, Audio Visual Teachique in Teaching Foreign Language, ( New york:Cambridge University Press , 1960), p. 5.
Erik Vilímec, Developing Speaking Skills, (Chicago: Faculty of Art and Philosophy, Departement of English and American Studies, 2006), p. 11.
or easier, or help them to change, avoid or replace the difficult expressions, besides these elementary functions also help students to sound more naturally as speakers of a foreign language. There are four elementary ways of facilitating that Bygate distinguishes: simplifying structures, elipsis, formulaic expressions, and using fillers and hesitation devices. On the other hand, when a speaker needs to alter, correct or change what he or she has said, they will need to make use of compensation devices. These include tools such a substitution, rephrasing, reformulating, self-correction, false starts, and repetition and hesitation. Secondly
interaction skills, both speakers and listeners should be „good communicators’ it
means good at saying what they want to say in a way which the listener finds
this means being able to possess interaction skills.
The theory of bygates is supported by Harmer, Harmer said that elements of speaking has two aspects – knowledge of language and the ability to process information5. The first aspect, language features, necessary for spoken production involves. According to explenation of Harmer, the following features: connected speech, expressive devices, lexis and grammar, and negotiation language. connected speech including assimilation, elision, linking „r’, contractions and stress patterning (weakened sounds). Expressive devices : pitch, stress, speed, volume, physical non-verbal means for conveying meanings (supersegmental features). Lexis and grammar supplying common lexical phrases for different functions (agreeing, disagreeing, expressing shock, surprise, approval, etc.). Negotiation language : in order to seek clarification and to show the structure of what we are saying. Second is process information, it means interaction between speaker and listener. According the explanation Bygate and Harmer, Both Bygate and Harmer agreed a succesful speaker can use knowledge of language and skill to
process it. It means speaking and interaction in community can’t be built if
speaker dont have knowledge and skills to process it and listeners can’t to understand the information which is extended by speaker.
Erik Vilímec, Ibid., p. 12. 5
There are many types of speaking, it is categorized from amount of preparation and purpose. There are limited preparation speech and unlimited preperation speech. The limited preparation speech are conversation and interview. Both conversation and interview is a kind of speech which need a very limited amount of preperation and performance without text. The interaction and the understanding information which is happened is fast and spontantly. The unlimited preperation speech are informative speech and persuasion. The informative speech is kind of speech which focuses on identifies the important topic and giving new understanding to audience from the result of research. The informative speech is happened in presentation and speech on communities. Persuasion is kind of speech which asks the audience to do something. Advertisement is one of persuasive speech, persuasive speech providing the audience with enough information to understand the topic under discussion, appealing to the emotions, attitudes and values, and good sense of the listeners to
encourage support for the speaker’s stance, and setting up a course of action that is
well-suited to audience capabilities, ethical, and a logical outgrowth of the arguments set up within the speech.
From the theory above we can conclude that as a human being, we always need communication to express our idea to do everything. Speaking is one of ways to communicate and express idea and information between people or community. Because of that the language learning in the school is very important if communicate intensely and high interaction must be built and one of the ways is speaking.
2. The Elements of Speaking
Speaking is complex skill requering the simultaneous use of a number of different ability, which often develops at different rate. Either five components are generally recognized in analyzing the speech process. Those components are:
As stated by harmers if students wants to be able speak to speak fluently in English, they need to be able pronounce phonemes correctly, use appropriate
stress and intonation patterns and speak in connected speech. 6 Pronunciation refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. 7It includes attention to the particular sounds of a language (segments), aspects of speech beyond the level of the individual sound, such as intonation, phrasing, stress, timing, rhythm (suprasegmental aspects), how the voice is projected (voice quality) and, in its broadest definition, attention to gestures and expressions that are closely related to the way we speak a language. The speaker must be able to articulate the words and the physical sounds that carry meaning. A speaker with good pronunciation will be easy to understood than a speaker with bad pronunciation even they have a perfect grammar. We can judge the people from pronunciation, if their pronunciation bad we can called them incompetent. At the level of word pronunciation, second language have problems distinguishing between sounds in the new language that do not exist in language that they already know.
The main components of pronunciation are sounds, syllables, and words. building blocks of pronunciation are the individual sounds, the vowels and consonants go together to make words. It is important to remember that there is a difference between vowel and consonant letters and vowel and consonant sounds. Vowel and consonant sounds combine into syllables. It can be helpful to think of the structure of English syllables. A word can be either a single syllable or a sequence of two or more syllables. When a word has more than one syllable, one of these syllables is stressed in relation to other syllables in the word, while other syllables are said to be unstressed. Pronunciation can be said as the act of uttering with articulation, the act of giving the proper sound and accent, utterance, as the pronunciation of syllables of words,distinct or indistinct pronunciation. It is a way in which language is spoken. It includes segmental feature, vowel, and the intonation patterns. From the definitions above, it can be inferred that learners should master the words of the language because language consists of words. It is
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Forth Edition, (Pearson: Education Limited, 2007), p. 343.
Amep Research Center, Fact sheet – What is Pronunciation?,(Australia: Adult Migrant English Program Centre, October 2002), p. 1.
in order to be able to use the language approximately. Having mastered a large number of words with sound and vowel. they will be able to express their ideas in the language approximately and clearly.
It is obvious that in order be able to speak foreign language, it is important to know a certain amount of grammar and vocabulary. Grammar is the sounds and the sound patterns, the basic units of meaning sucha as words and the rules to combine them to form new sentences. 8 As according to David Crystal in his article, he said that Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express ourselves.9 For all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with meaning. Become important things to know grammar, and it is better to write grammatically than not, but it is well to remember that grammar is common speech formulated. In general we knew grammar is set of rules governing how the words in a language may be joined to make sense. We may understand the meaning of a sentence without understanding the grammar. But sometimes it will be difficult to understand the purpose of sentence if the the composition of grammar is not correct. In the result grammar is important part in English.
There are five basics elements of English Grammar , these are basic elements of English grammar: Sentences (complete, run-on, and fragments), Tenses , Pronouns , Possessives and Commas.10 An understanding and application of these fundamental elements of grammar will help students unleash the power of the English language. Altough in each elements has its roles but it has connection and complete to other elements. The ambiguity will not be happened if all elements is noticed by speaker. Therefore, grammar is very important in speaking because it is needed to mastering English speaking well in meaning side and discreasing ambiguity.
Victoria Fromklin and Robert Rodman, An Introduction to Language, (New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998), p. 14.
David Crystal, "In Word and Deed.", http://grammar.about.com/, 3 july 2014. 10
As we know, vocabulary is a basic elements in language. Vocabulary is single words, set phrases, variable phrases, phrasal verb and idioms.11 According to Richards vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write. Jackson and Amvela say that the terms of vocabulary, lexis, and lexicon are synonymous. Vocabulary is one of the language components that can affect macro skills. Some definition of vocabulary is proposed by some experts. In addition, Richards and Schmidt state that vocabulary is a set of lexeme, including single words, compound words, and idioms.
Vocabulary development refers to the knowledge of stored information about the meanings and pronunciations of words necessary for communication. Vocabulary development is important for beginer speaker in that when a student sounds out a word, he or she is also determining if the word makes sense based on his or her understanding of the word. If a student does not know the meaning of the word, it is difficult to check for the word that fits or not. Vocabulary development is also a primary determinant of speaking. Speaker cannot understand the content and topic of what they are speaking unless they understand the meaning of the majority of words in speech and also the speaker will be difficult to speak if they have problem in the knowledge of vocabulary in their selves. According to the Collins Cobuild English dictionary,there are two types of vocabulary, vocabulary of language is the total number of word in it and
someone’s vocabulary is the total of words in a language that he or she knows.12 The vocabulary of language always changes and grows in community of people and become more complex, people devise or borrow new words to
describe man’s activities. Talking about vocabulary, Lehr, Osborn, and Hiebert defined vocabulary as knowledge of words and words meaning in both oral and print language and in productive and receptive forms. Harmer summarized that
Keith S. Folse, Vocabulary Myths, Applying Second Language Reseacrh to Classroom Teaching, (Michigan: University of Michigan, 2004) , p. 2.
Rosa Lopez Campillo, Teaching and Learning: An Introduction for English Student, (Rome: De Magisterio De Albacete), p. 35.
knowing a vocabulary means knowing about meaning, word use, word formation, and word grammar. Word meaning is also governed by metaphors and idioms, the word hiss refers to the noise of snake and to someone‟ s threat to others. In collocation, a word goes with each other, such as, headache, earache, and so on. In addition, style and register is applied by differentiating the language to be used by someone either in a formal or informal context, for example hello (formal) and hi (informal). Moreover, word formation may also create word meaning vy seeing them on their grammatical contexts. It means that we look at how the suffixes and the prefixes work such as in imperfect and perfect, inappropriate and appropriate. there are some aspects that have to be discussed in vocabulary, namely: word meaning (synonym, antonym, connotation, and denotation), extending word use such as idioms, word combination or collocation, and the grammar of words which comprises noun,verb, adjective, and adverb. With all definitions, show us that vocabulary is the first element that the English learners should learn in order to master English well. With limited vocabulary the conversation in people interaction will not be possible.
In simple terms, fluency is the ability to talk freely without too much stoping or hestitating. Meanwhile, according to Gower et- al fluency can be thought of as the ability to keep going when speaking spontaneosly. 13 The ultimate goal of many secon language learners is to be fluent in the target language, fluently in speaking of course mean to be ablle express their thought and meaning easly and smoothy without feel stuck in any situations. the definition of fluency firstly explained by Pawley and Syder, they said that fluency is ability to produce fluent streches of discourse like as the native speaker. 14 Day and Shapson defined fluency as: “the ease and flow of the student's speech in
David Riddel, Teach English as a Second Language, (Chicago: McGrew Hill Companies, 2011), p. 118.
Judit Kormos and Mariann Dénes, Exploring Measures And Perceptions of Fluency In The Speech of Second Language Learners, (Budapest: Eötvös Loránd University), p. 3.
comparison with native speakers. “15 they elaborated the four levels, The four levels are 1. halting, slow speech, noticeable breaks between words, seems to require much effort; 2. speech is uneven, some noticeable breaks between words, seems to require effort, occasionally halting, tend to but not necessarily have slower speech rate than level three; 3. relatively smooth and effortless speech but rate of speech is slower than native or perceptibly non-native; and 4. relatively smooth, native-like rate of speech.
The man who investegated about fluency is Fillmore, as Fillmore conceptualised fluency in four different ways. First, he defined fluency as the ability to talk at length with few pauses and to be able to fill the time with talk. Second, a fluent speaker is not only capable of talking without hesitations but of expressing his/her message in a coherent, reasoned and "semantically densed" manner. Third, a person is considered to be fluent if he/she knows what to say in a wide of range of contexts. Finally, Fillmore argued that fluent speakers are creative and imaginative in their language use and a maximally fluent speaker has all of the above mentioned abilities. These definitions suggest that fluency can be measured by looking at the speed and flow of language production, the degree of control of langugae and the way language and content interact.
For Beatens Beardsmore, oral fluency is understood to imply a 'communicative competence' requiring an ability to formulate accurate and appropriate utterances of more than one sentence in length”16. He explained his concept of fluency in these terms: "Oral fluency requires the ready availability of this communicative competence for the formulation of appropriate utterances in real time, involving a strategy for the elaboration of sentence structures, as well as the selection and insertion of lexical items. Individual sentences must be integrated into connected discourses". Beardsmore selected specific criteria and established them as a function of his aims. These are : fluency (tentatively defined as the ability to give proof of sustained oral communicative spontaneous competence, use of production as well implying as the 'conversational a certain
Marguerite E. Ascione, Fluency Development in Second Language Teaching, (Alberta: University Of Lethbridge, 1985), p. 8.
unstilted, lubricants', accuracy (structural and lexical), relevance, intelligibility, pronunciation, variety of structures and variety of lexis.
It is interesting to note that fluency is considered here as one element of oral fluency assessment, which in this case one could call oral proficiency. When speaking fluently students should be able to get the messeage across with what ever resources and abilites they have got, regardless of gramatical and other mistakes. As one of important aspects in speaking, fluency become standart of assesment in speaking test.
The last speaking elements is comprehension. Comprehension is discussed by both speakers because comprehension can make people getting the information they want. Comprehension is defined as the ability to understand something by reasonable comprehension of the subjet or as the knowledge of what a situation is really like.
And according some theories said that there are 7 elements in communication in the society those are : Speaker as the people who speak, message as the meaning which want to explain, Channel as the mean by which a message is communicated, Listener as the person who receives the speaker message, Feedback as the message from listener to the speaker, Interference is anything that impedes communication of message and there is two type :interneal and external, and Situation is time and place where the communication occurs.
3. Problem of Speaking
As one of skills in a language, speaking has problem which is faced by the learner. Learning foreign language is not easy for some students, because the position as foreign language which is not always used in daily activity. According to Munjanayah first problem is inhibition, speaking requires some degree of real-time exposure to an audience. Some learners in classroom are worried to say something because they are shy or they dont know how to say it correctly. Beside that, they worried to say because they dont have much vocabulary enough in their
brain for expressing their idea. The second problem is there is gap between active and pasive students in the class, it is back to the personal of students because there are some students are talkless and others are talkactive. The last is mother tongue some students have problem in mother tongue, of course it happened because the language which is learnt is foreign language and they are unfamiliar to use it in communication.
All problems above are general problem which is faced in learning in speaking. The writer also met problem in speaking learning in SMPN 3 Tangsel, the observation was taken when the writer taught in PPKT 2013.
1. Definition of Jigsaw
Jigsaw technique is one of Cooperative learning method. It is based on group dynamics and social interactions. This technique was designed by Aronson and it used by Slavin in 1978.Slavin says “jigsaw was one of the earliest of cooperative learning method. In jigsaw, each student in a five –to six- member
group is given unique the whole information on a topic that group is studying”.17 Jigsaw technique can be meant as a system of teaching which gives the opportunity to the students to work in a group structuraly. This technique allows the student able to learn and active to participate in learning process.” Jigsaw
technique is a cooperative learning method that requires everyone’s cooperative
effort to produce the final product. Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece and each student’s part are essential for the production and full understanding of the final product. This technique mix the activity of reading, writing, litening and speaking. in this technique the teacher see the background of the experience on students and help the students to be active in studying. The purpose of technique is appropriated with the concept of cooperative learning method which is develop
the amount of students’ participation in the classroom and reduces the need for competitiveness and the teacher’s dominance in the classroom. Jigsaw technique
E Slavin, Learning to Cooperate, Cooperating to Learn, (New York: Plenum Press, 1987) p. 17.
also designed to increase the responsibility on the students in the class. Active situations in the class become important requisite for this technique, individualistic and teaching focused on teacher is not allowed in this technique. Many observers has studied about this technique, one of them is Johnson and Holubec. Johnson and Holubec put forward five principles for jigsaw strategy: a. Positive interdependence
Each group member’s efforts are required and indispensable for the group
success. Each group member has to make unique contributions to the joint effort. b. Face-to-face promotive interaction
Group members have to orally explain how to solve problems, teach one’s knowledge to others, check for understanding, discuss concepts being learned and associate the present learning with the past one.
c. Individual and group accountability
The size of the group should be kept small, for the smaller the size of the group is, the greater the individual accountability may be. The teacher is expected to give an individual test to each student, randomly examine students by asking
one student to present his or her group’s work orally to the teacher (in the presence of the group) or to the entire class, observe each group and record the
frequency with which each member contributes to the group’s work, appoint one
student in each group as the leader, who is responsible for asking other group members to explain the rationale underlying the group answers, and monitor
students to teach what they’ve learned to the others.
d. Interpersonal skills
Social skills are a necessity for the success of jigsaw learning in class. Social skills include leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication, conflict management skills and so on.
e. Group processing
Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and maintaining effective working relationships, describe what member actions are helpful and what are not, and make decisions about what behaviors to continue or change. Jigsaw learning makes it possible for students to be introduced to material
and yet bear a high level of personal responsibility. It helps develop teamwork and cooperative learning skills within all students and a depth of knowledge not possible if the students learn all of the material on them own. Finally, since students are supposed to report their own findings to the home group in jigsaw
learning, it quite often discloses a student’s own understanding of a concept as
well as reveal any misunderstandings.
The Jigsaw technique is different from other techniques, especially with Grammar translation. In Grammar Translation Method the point of teaching is
grammatical and vocabulary like Brown said “The Grammar Translation Method
requires few specialized skills on the part of teachers. Tests of grammar rules and of translations are easy to construct and can be objectively scored. Many standardized tests of foreign languages still do not attempt to tap into communicative abilities, so students have little motivation to go beyond grammar
analogies, translations, and rote exercises.”18
it means Grammar Translation Method is not to concentrate in communication learning. The students only focus on understanding of grammar and translation of sentence. the most fundamental reason for learning the language is give learners access to English literature, develop their minds "mentally" through foreign language learning, and to build in them the kinds of grammar, reading, vocabulary and translation skills necessary to pass any one of a variety of mandatory written tests required at High School or Tertiary level. It is very contradict with Jigsaw Technique which is focus in communication in learning. Jigsaw Technique is cooperative learning which guides students for interact actively and positively in group. It is allowed creativity in learning. The understanding of grammar and translation is not be a main focus in here but not mean not to learn in Jigsaw technique, the understanding of grammar and translation is learnt naturally on the practice of communication. The last difference among Grammar Translation Method is center of learning of Jigsaw are students, the teacher just give facility to student to understand naturally.
Sylva Ducháčková, Methods And Approaches In Foreign Language Teaching, (Masaryk University Brno: Department Of English Language And Literature,2006), p. 9.
2. Procedure of Jigsaw
In the Application Jigsaw technique students are separated from their own groups and form new groups with the other students who are responsible for
preparing the same subjects. These groups, called “groups of experts” try to make
other students understand the subject; they make plans about how they can teach the subject to their friends, and prepare a report. Afterwards, they turn to their own groups and teach their subjects to them with the help of the reports they have prepared. In the last stage, stage of completing, teachers can perform some activities with individuals, small groups or the whole class in order to unify
students’ learning. For instance, she/he can make one of the home groups or
individual students make presentations in the classroom on their subjects. In the evaluation stage, the study is completed by making the evaluation proposed by the cooperative learning method.19
Furthermore in the implementation of Jigsaw Technique there are seven steps according to Jin Xiao20. These are seven steps in applicant of Jigsaw technique :
Step 1: Choosing a passage, the teacher chose material for learning by students.
Step 2: Dividing the students into jigsaw groups. In class, the teacher first divided the students into jigsaw groups since the sample passage chosen by the teacher consisted of material, but sometimes into 4- or 5 person groups depending on the material chosen for the activity. The groups would be better if diverse in terms of language proficiency, personality and gender. Then the teacher appointed one student from each group as the group leader, and each student in a jigsaw group was given an assignment sheet
Abdullah Sahin, Educational Research and Review : Effects of Jigsaw II Technique on Academic Achievement and Attitudes to Written Expression Course, (Turkey: Ataturk University, 2010), p. 778.
Qiao Mengduo and Jin Xiao, Jigsaw Strategy as Cooperative Learning Technique: Focusing on the Language Learners, (Chinese: Harbin Institute Technology,2010) p. 116.
Step 3: Studying material. The teacher listed and explained the new and unfamiliar material for students in order to remove some of the barriers of the material and ease the flow of the jigsaw activity in the groups.
Step 4: Involving the whole class in an activity for general comprehension. The teacher read and give example of material twice to the whole class so that the students could grasp the main idea of the passage. Then they asked wh-questions concerning the passage, which may help the students organize their thoughts for better preparation.
Step 5: Forming “expert groups”. The teacher asked the students to move
to the “expert groups”, each of which was dealing with one paragraph of the reading passage. Again, the teacher \ appointed one student from each “expert
group” as the group leader, and the leader organized the group to discuss the assigned paragraph, including summarizing the main idea and comprehension of all sentences. By means of a variety of practices, such as listening, reading, repeating, asking & answering, reciting, and retelling, every student was supposed to gain a through understanding of the paragraph. At last, each of the group members was asked to retell the paragraph in front of the rest of the group. The reteller may receive hints from the others if he or she paused for help, but no correction was permitted before the retelling was finished.
Step 6: Students returning to their jigsaw groups. Since each member of
the “expert group” might now have become an “expert” on the assigned
paragraph, the researchers asked all the students to return to their original jigsaw groups. Now each student in a jigsaw group had unique information, so the members of each jigsaw group had to teach each other their assigned paragraphs respectively. This was where the jigsaw merged into the final cohesive whole. It was carried out in the following four steps:
Step 7: Writing a summary. The researchers required all the students to conduct creative writing about the passage they had just learned in order to check their understanding of the whole passage.
3. The Advantages of Jigsaw
There are several advantages of jigsaw technique in teaching and learning the class. First, Teacher is not to be as the center of knowledge anymore because the knowledge center could be among the students. It happened because in jigsaw technique a workship is built on students in the class by using discussion and communication to each others. Second in jigsaw technique, it accostums every student to be an active participant in the learning process and help to build inter-personal and communicative skills among students.
Creating groups among students give positive effect beside communication and interaction in the class, that are responsibility and workship among students. The existance of expert group on jigsaw technique make every participant must have a knowledge to share by communication and to be dominating with their argument. This technique provide the domination of students to be the important thing, because the students will be more active to share their knowledge.21 The domination of teacher in the class is not appropriate to teach speaking English, because of that the jigsaw technique provides a new habit in teaching speaking in the class. Based on explaination above, it can be concluded that Jigsaw technique builds interpersonal and interactive skills as main purpose of this cooperative teaching method. This technique was made to take part from teacher’s teaching to focus on social interaction and communication among students until gives positive effect on speaking ability of students.
4. Disadvantages of Jigsaw Technique
Many researchers demonstrate numerous advantages of Jigsaw technique; this does not mean that implementing Jigsaw is problem free. The problems are considered as the disadvantages for carrying out the technique. Jigsaw technique can be some obstacles when using it. One common problem is a dominant students. According to Aronson, there are several disadvantages of using Jigsaw technique. First is the problem of the slow student. The slow student need more time than others to understand and absorb the information. Second is the problem
may be dominated by smart students, not everyone has an equal voice in a group. One person may dominate the group while others feel left out. Some students do not trust the abilities of others in the group which results tension and refusal to cooperate. Third is the problem of students are becoming bored. 22 It usually happens to many students in jigsaw situation. They become impatient, bored, or resentful of the slower students. Moreover, because their ability to ctach information are so quick, some students tend to be among the most easily bored if the activities are moving too slowly for them. The last problem of the jigsaw classroom is noisy. The students are scattered around the room. Everybody is talking at the same time. A non-jigsaw teacher might be thought that the jigsaw teacher must be an undisciplined person, unskilled, and ineffective for overcoming such as how students learn in such noisy atmosphere.
All the problems above do occur in implementing the Jigsaw technique if the jigsaw teacher who is not creative enough to tackle and handle the problems. There are several tactics a teacher can do to solve the problems. For example, the teacher involves the students in the expert group. This is one of the strategies for helping some students. In this way, poorer students are helped by their peers who have the same topic. Meanwhile the others students eliminate their boredom by teaching others. By developing activity in a class some students can turn into exciting challenge otherwise slower students are faced experience by this activity for solving problem. In addition, to reduce the noisy class, the jigsaw teacher should maximally acts as a facilitator, moves around the class, from Jigsaw group to Jigsaw group, listening, observing, and keeping alert for many problems arise.
Teaching Speaking Using Jigsaw Technique
First activity that writer will be held is the teacher helps the student in building their background knowledge about the will be learned. Such as shows some text, the title of the text and asks some questions.
After that, the students may have some references in their mind about text that they will read. The next step is dividing the students into jigsaw groups. In class, the teacher first divided the students into jigsaw groups since the sample passage chosen by the teacher consisted of material, but sometimes into 4- or 5 person groups depending on the material chosen for the activity. Then the teacher appointed one student from each group as the group leader, and each student in a jigsaw group was given an assignment sheet.
The next step is forming “expert groups”. The teacher asked the students to
move to the “expert groups”, each of which was dealing with one paragraph of the reading passage. Again, the teacher appointed one student from each “expert
group” as the group leader, and the leader organized the group to discuss the assigned paragraph, including summarizing the main idea and comprehension of all sentences. By means of a variety of practices, such as listening, reading, repeating, asking & answering, reciting, and retelling, every student was supposed to gain a through understanding of the paragraph. After that, students returning to their jigsaw groups. Since each member of the “expert group” might now have
become an “expert” on the assigned paragraph, the researchers asked all the students to return to their original jigsaw groups.
Now each student in a jigsaw group had unique information, so the members of each jigsaw group had to teach each other their assigned paragraphs respectively. And the last is the researchers required all the students to conduct creative writing about the passage they had just learned in order to check their understanding of the whole passage and tell the review in the class.
The writer has found a relevant study which related to this research. That journal was written by Hersulastuti with the title implementing jigsaw technique in speaking class of describing someone: a reflection. In this research, Hersulastuti used jigsaw as a technique. Her classroom consisted of 28 students, and she divided it intofive or six group. The first group consist of six students that studied using jigsaw technique. Hersulastuti gave the picture in each group, each member
had a different picture. After that they formed expert group to discuss the picture. And the last they back to main group to discussing every picture and make resume for oral test from her.
The result of this research was identified the strengths and the weaknesses
of this technique. Some of the strengths were: It could break the „gaps’ of the
students-lecture relationship. Most of the students considered speaking was the most difficult subject in their study. They often felt nervous when they had to perform any tasks in front of the class, they found uneasy knowing that any aspects of their performance were assessed by the lecture. It was different when they worked together in groups. They could perform freer, and because they often involved in discussion with the lecture made them less worried and obtained more self confidence. This matter influenced the quality of their competence, the atmosphere of learning was much better because the students found another interesting way in speaking class. They participated actively into the learning, since everyone had to exchange the information in expert groups and then present it in their home team, made them more productive, and created better interactions among the members, although some mistakes occurred „here and there’, but they felt excited as well, they also helped each other when they found any difficulties in their presentation. All those positive things are in line with the principle of what makes speaking class successful.23
Conceptual of Framework
Speaking is one of important skills in English, because it is a tool for interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. Talking about speaking, many research results showed that the ability of Indonesian students to speak and communicate in English was very low. It can be seen that some of students still have difficulties in communicate in the class. As one of the importants skill, it should be mastered by
Hersulastuti, Implementing Jigsaw Technique in Speaking Class of Describing Someone: Refclection , (Klaten: Unwidha, September 2010) p. 78.
our students. The first problem is because they should have enough knowledge about grammar, vocabulary, etc to get the information in English communication. The second problem is English still to be a foreign language in Indonesia and it make the intensity of using English in the people is not too much. Because of that, it is really hard to teach speaking English and it needs correct strategy to reach the goal of English speaking learning.
The problem in speaking learning above is appropriate with the purpose of Jigsaw Technique. Jigsaw is one of the cooperative learning strategies, cooperative learning guide the learners to be cooperative to each other. In the implementation of Jigsaw technique, it requires the high interaction and active communication among students in the class. It is needed to reach the goal of learning in students. The purpose of this jigsaw technique is to make the students in the class can be active to express their ideas by discussing, and presenting on group, With the strategy which is created for high interaction and communicaton, it must be a solution for increasing speaking skill in students. Those explanations seemed to be the reason why the writer wanted to conduct this research. The writer believes that speaking is such a compulsory skill to be mastered and the underlying problem stated above is that the students have low facility in and outside the classroom to expand their speaking skill. The teachers need the appropriate method and technique which encourage students’ speaking ability. Jigsaw technique with high interaction in the implementation hope can fulfill the interaction needs in speaking English learning.
Ho: Jigsaw technique is not effective in teaching speaking in eighth grade regular class of SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan.
Ha: Jigsaw technique is effective in teaching speaking in eighth grade regular class of SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan.
The Place and Time of the Study
The writer chose SMPN 3 Tangerang Selatan as a place of study. The study was conducted on September 2015.
Method and Research Design1. Method
This study was conducted using a quasi experimental research that used 2 classes which consisted of one control class and one experimental class. Generally, the researcher in experimental research used two groups, experimental group as a group that get the treatment and the control group that did not get treatment. So, this study was focused on using Jigsaw technique as a treatment in experimental class, then the writer compared the result with a control class that did not get a treatment in the end of the research.
2. Research Design
In this study the writer used a quasi-experimental method with one experimental class and one control class. The design of experiment that used is:
Pretest Treatment Posttest Difference Experimental
Control Class -
Y1 = Pretest of both experimental and control class
Y2 = Posttest of both experimental and control class
X = Implementation of Jigsaw Technique1
The Population and Sample1. Population
The population of this study is the second grade student of SMPN 3 Tanggerang Selatan. This school has ten classes for second grade with 4 English teacher. Because only one teacher who permitted the classes to used as sample, the researcher took 2 classes for this research.
The sample are 60 students from two classes; VIII.8 and VIII.9. The writer was implemented jigsaw technique in the first class and jigsaw technique was not implemented in the second class. Before the writer conduct the research, he made sure that both of classes have the similar characteristic or achievment by doing an oral test. It was found that the students from both classes have the same characteristic and achievment in oral test. The sample of this study was a class VIII.8 as an experimental class and VIII.9 as control class which each class consistted of 30 students.
The Research Instrument
The Instrument of the research was test. Oral test was tested to get sistematic data. Retell narative story was an oral test which was planed by researcher. Telling narative story was used as an Instrument of a pre-test and a post-test. The result of oral test was spared in the oral test criteria consist of 5 criteria which was designed validity. The researcher used content validity to attain students the evidence of valid instrument. The researcher made the school English syllabus as the main achievement. The oral test was held to get
Larry Christensen, Experimental Methodology, (USA: University of South Alabama, 2007), p. 332.
the students speaking skill in comprehensibility, fluency, grammar, vocabulary, and accuracy.
Table 3.2 Five Components of Grading Speaking Scale: Components
Rating Scores Indicators
6 80-100 Pronunciation is only very slightly influenced by the mother tongue. Two or three minor grammatical and lexical error.
5 70–79 Pronunciation is slightly influenced by the mother-tongue. A few minor grammatical and lexical errors but most utterances are correct.
4 60–69 Pronunciation is still moderately influenced by the mother-tongue but no serious phonological errors. A few grammatical and lexical errors but only one or two major errors causing confusion
3 50–59 Pronunciation is influenced by the mother-tongue but only a few serious phonological and lexical errors, some of which causes confusion.
2 40–49 Pronunciation seriously influenced by the mother tongue with errors causing a breakdown in communication. Many
Components of Speaking
Rating Scores Indicators
6 80–100 Speaks without too great an effort with a fairly wide range of expression. Searches for words occasionally but only one or two unnatural pauses
5 70–79 Has to make an effort at times to search for words. Nevertheless, smooth delivery on the whole and only a few unnatural pauses.
4 60–69 Although he has to make an effort and search for words, there are not too many unnatural pauses. Fairly smooth delivery mostly. Occasionally fragmentary but succeeds in conveying the general meaning. Fair range of expression 3 50–59 Has to make an effort for much of the time. Often has to
search for the desired meaning. Rather halting delivery and fragmentary. Range of expression often limited
2 40–49 Long pauses while he searches for the desired meaning. Frequently fragmentary and halting delivery. Almost gives up making the effort at times. Limited range of expression
Full of long and unnatural pauses. Very halting and fragmentary delivery. At times gives up making the effort. Very limited range of expression
Components of Speaking
Rating Scores Indicators
6 80–100 Easy for the listener to understand the speaker’s intention
and general meaning. Very few interruptions or clarification required
5 70-79 The speaker’s intention and general meaning are fairly clear. A few interruptions by the listener for the sake of clarification are necessary
4 60–69 Most of what the speaker says is easy to follow. His intention is always clear but several interruptions are necessary to help him to convey the message or to seek clarification
3 50–59 The listener can understand a lot of what is said, but he must constantly seek clarification. Cannot understand
many of the speaker’s more complex or longer sentence
2 40–49 Only small bits (usually short sentences and phrases) can be understood-and then with considerable effort by someone who is used to listening to the speaker
Hardly anything of what is said can be understood. Even when the listener makes a great effort or interrupts, the speaker is unable to clarity anything he seems to have said
Components of Speaking
Rating Scores Indicators
6 80–100 No more than two errors during the interview. 5 70–79 Few errors, with no patterns of failure.
4 60–69 Occasional errors showing imperfect control of some patterns but no weakness that causes misunderstanding. 3 50–59 Frequent errors showing some major patterns uncontrolled
and causing occasional irritation and misunderstanding. 2 40–49 Constant errors showing control of very few major patterns
and frequently preventing communication.
Grammar almost entirely inaccurate phrases.
6 80–100 Vocabulary apparently as accurate and extensive as that of an educated native speaker.
5 70–79 Professional vocabulary,general vocabulary adequate to cope with complex practical problems.
4 60–69 Professional vocabulary adequate to discuss special interest.
3 50–59 Choice of words sometimes inaccurate, limitations of vocabulary prevent discussion of some common professional and social topics.
2 40–49 Vocabulary limited to basic personal and survival areas.
Vocabulary inadequate for even the simplest conversation.
Technique of Data Collection
In this study, the researcher took two classes. One class was for experiment and the other was for control. The experimental class was treated by using jigsaw technique, while the control class was treated by conventional method.
Before teaching activity, the researcher gave pre-test toward both experimental and control class. In this study, the material was telling narative story. In this test, the researcher provides narative text which is presented by story telling in the class. the story telling is held for get the achievment of oral test with 5 criteria grammar, comprehensibility, fluency, vocabulary, accuracy. Moreover, after teaching process, the researcher gave post-test by using oral test. It was similar test like pre-test. It aim to find out whether the students’ speaking ability was significant after using jigsaw technique. Finally, the result of the individual scores between pre-test and post-test scores was administered as data of research.
Technique of Data Analysis
The data that the writer was gotten in this research were analyzed using statistical calculation. The writer did the test twice that are pre-test (before treatment) and post-test (after treatment). The data were compared from the growth of the score from pre-test and post-test and from the growth score in both experiment and controlled class.
Next, the writer used independent T-test formula to calculate the data. It was because the writer wanted to find out the degree of significant different between the growth of pre-test and post-test from both classes also between the achievement in experiment class and control class. The purpose of this calculation was to find out whether jigsaw technique was effective or not to
experiment class was X variable and the controlled class was Y variable. The formula of t-test was expressed as follows:
The t-test formula is stated as follows:
M 1 : Mean of the Difference of Experiment Class M 2 : Mean of the Difference of Control Class SE M 1 : Standard Error of Experiment Class SE M 2 : Standard Error of Control Class The Procedure of calculation are as follows: 1. Determine mean of variable with formula:
2. Determine mean of variable Y with formula: =
3. Determine Standard deviation variable X with formula: SDx or SD1 = √
4. Determine Standard deviation of variable Y with formula: SDy or SD2 = √
5. Determine Standard error of variable X with formula: SE Mx = √
6. Determine standard error of variable Y with formula: SE My =
7. Determine standard error means of differences mean of variable X and variable Y, with formula:
SEMx-My = √
8. Determining t0 with formula:
9. Determining t-table in significance level 5 % with Degree of Freedom (df):
df = (N1+N2) – 2
The statistical hypothesis of this research can be seen as:
1. If t-test (to) > t-table (tt) in significant degree of 0.05, Ho (null hypothesis) is rejected. It means that the rates of mean score of the experimental group are higher than the controlled group. There is effect in teaching speaking by using jigsaw technique.
2. If t-test (to) < t-table (tt) in significant degree of 0.05, Ho (the null hypothesis) is accepted. It means that the rates of the means score of the experimental group are same as or lower than the controlled group. There is no effect in teaching speaking by using jigsaw technique.
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND INTERPRETATION
This chapter presents findings of the study. The findings describe into the data description, the data analysis, and the interpretation. The data were collected from the result of pre-test and post-test from both experimental class and control class. The data were depicted into two tables. The Table 4.1 showed the students’ score in experiment class and the Table 4.2 showed the students’ score in control class. The researcher gave a treatment to the experiemental class by giving some materials. In this research, the materials given to the students are based on the syllabus that are actually similar with materials. The materials are consisted of Telling story about descriptive, narative, and recount, describing advertisement. The researcher gave motions (topic) to students to discuss. In practicing to speak, the students directly used the materials that have been covered in a speakers’ handout given by the researcher. The validity and reliability instrument test was conducted before she administered the test to both classes.
1. The Data Description
This part shows the general description of students’ scores in both the experimental class and the control class. The description is divided into some sections: the pre-test scores, the post-test scores, and the gained scores.
a. The Pre-test Scores
Table 4.1 reports the students’ pre-test scores of the experimental class and the control class. There are 30 students in both the experimental class and the controlled class.
The Students’ Pre-test Scores
Students The Pre-test Scores of
Experimental Class Controlled Class
Students The Pre-test Scores of
Experimental Class Controlled Class
Mean 51.233 51.7
The above table shows the students’ pre-test scores of the experimental class and the controlled class. The test was given in the first meeting before giving any treatment. Both the experimental class and the controlled class have 33 as the lowest score of pre-test, 50 as the median score, and 62 as the highest score. Besides, the mean score of experimental class is 51.23 and the controlled class is 51.7. Hence, it can be concluded that the pre-test scores of the experimental class and the controlled class seemed to be equivalent.
b. The Post-test Scores
Table 4.2 reports the students’ post-test scores of the experimental class and the controlled class. Each class has 30 students as the sample.
The Students’ Post-test Scores
Students The Post-test Scores of
Experimental Class Controlled Class
Students The Post-test Scores of
Experimental Class Controlled Class
Mean 72.73 63
The data above are the post-test scores of the experimental class and the controlled class. The post-test was given in the last meeting after the treatment. In the post-test, the lowest score of the experimental class is 67 and the controlled class is 51. Meanwhile, the median of the experimental class is 71 and the controlled class is 62. Besides, the highest score of the experimental class is 82 and the controlled class is 73. The mean of the experimental class is 72.33 and the controlled class is 63.33. Therefore, it can be seen that the experimental class has higher significant score than the controlled class. Later, the writer did T-test to know whether post-test score of the experimental class and the controlled class is different.
c. The Gained Scores
Table 4.3 below reports the gained scores of the experimental class and the controlled class. Both the experimental class and the controlled class have 30 students.
The Gained Scores of the Experimental Class and the Controlled Class
Students The Gained Scores of
Experimental Class Controlled Class
64 RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
Post Test Control Class Satuan Pendidikan : SMP Kelas/Semester : VII/1
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris Topik : Narrative text Pertemuan Ke- : 8
Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 45 menit
A. Kompetensi Dasar
3.11 Memahami dan merespon percapakan transaksional (to get things done) dan interpersonal (bersosialisasi) sederhana dengan menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan secara akurat, lancer, dan berterima untuk berinteraksi dengan lingkungan sekitar yang berbentuk naratif, deskriptif, recount dan anekdot.
B. Indikator Pencapaian Kompetensi
1. Mengidentifikasikan past tense dalam Narative. 2. Mengidentifikasi gagasan utama dan informasi rinci. 3. Memberikan penilaian tentang informasi dalam teks. 4. Mengidentifikasi informasi dalam teks.
5. Menceritakan teks beserta informasi nya.
6. Melakukan percakapan interpersonal untuk mendapatkan informasi melalui kegiatan terintegrasi menyimak dan berbicara bahasa Inggris.
C. Tujuan Pembelajaran
1. Peserta didik dapat menidentifiksai simple past tense yang terdapat dalam kalimat. 2. Peserta didik dapat melakukan interaksi interpersonal dalam praktik berbicara bahasa
a. Communication Practice
Latihan mengenali Narative dan kata sifat. Tanya jawab mengenai struktur Narative. b. Grammar Practice
Penjelasan definisi narative text.
Penjelasan struktur teks kata sifat pada narative text. c. Developing Skills
65 Vocabulary yang terkait dengan teks yang berbentuk narative text.
E. Model/Metode Pembelajaran 1. Pendekatan: Active Learning 2. Strategi: observe – practice.
3. Metode: Cooperative Learning – Jigsaw technique. F. Kegiatan Pembelajaran
Kegiatan Deskripsi Kegiatan Alokasi
Pendahuluan Apersepsi :
Menyapa siswa dengan mengucapkan selamat pagi
Menanyakan kabar siswa
Tanya jawab singkat tentang hari ini (saat pengajaran berlangsung)
Me-review materi sebelumnya
Memberikan pertanyaan untuk menghubungkan ke judul yang akan dipelajari
Menjelaskan pentingnya materi yang akan dipelari berikut kompetensi yang harus dikuti siswa
Memberikan stimulus tentang materi teks narasi. Memberikan contoh bentuk teks narasi.
Mendiskusikan materi bersama siswa.
Memberikan kesempatan pada siswa untuk menjelaskan atau mendeskripsikan materi teks narasi.
Guru membagi siswa menjadi kelompok setiap kelompok terdiri dari 5-6 orang.
Siswa diberikan contoh teks narasi sederhana untuk diidentifikasi isi setiap paragraph dan di diskusikan
66 dalam kelompok.
Guru memfasilitasi siswa saat kegiatan diskusi berlangsung
Siswa difasilitasi oleh guru berupa mendiskusikan isi cerita secara keseluruhan dan membuat rangkuman yang akan menjadi bahan mereka untuk presentasi di depan kelas.
Membimbing siswa untuk menyebutkan informasi informasi yang terdapat pada recount teks.
Membiasakan siswa untuk berani tampil di depan kelas dan mempersentasikan hasil belajar.
Memberi kesempatan untuk berpikir, menganalisis, menyelesaikan masalah, dan bertindak tanpa rasa takut.
Memfasilitasi peserta didik dalam pembelajaran kooperatif dan kolaboratif.
Memfasilitasi peserta didik berkompetisi secara sehat untuk meningkatkan prestasi belajar.
Memfasilitasi peserta didik untuk menyajikan hasil kerja individual maupun kelompok.
Memfasilitasi peserta didik melakukan kegiatan yang menumbuhkan kebanggaan dan rasa percaya diri peserta didik.
Penutup Setelah mengikuti kegiatan pembelajaran pada pertemuan ini, siswa ditanya bagaimana perasaannya (REFLEKSI)
Guru memberikan pertanyaan untuk mengetahui apakah siswa sudah memahami topik tentang narative text.
Siswa diminta membuat kesimpulan pembelajaran pada pertemuan ini
1. Sumber: Lembar cerita berbentuk Narative text 2. Media: Audio/video, White board, board marker
Guru Mapel Bahasa Inggris Mahasiswa
68 Narative text
Once upon a time , there were two animals , Sura and Baya name . Sura is the name of the Beast is the Beast shark and Baya the crocodile . They live in the deep sea . After Sura and Baya were looking for some food . Suddenly, Baya see a nice goat . " Yummy is good , this is the most delicious lunch , " said Baya . ' No way ! This is my lunch . You greedy " Sura said . Later they fought for goats . After several hours of fighting, they were very tired . Feels tired of fighting , they live in different places . Sura Baya live in the water and stay in
Border is the beach , so they do not will fight again . Someday , Sura went to the ground and look for some food in the river . he was very hungry and there was not much food in the sea . Baya was very angry when he knew that Sura broke a promise . they fight again . They both punching and kicking . tail Sura Baya fight . Baya did the same thing to Sura . He bit very hard until Sura finally gave up and returned to the sea . Baya happy . named his final city of Surabaya .
Read the narative story ( 10 Minute) Every student retell the story in the class.