The effectiveness of using jigsaw technique in teaching speaking

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING JIGSAW TECHNIQUE IN
TEACHING SPEAKING
(An Experimental Study at the Eighth Grade Regular Class SMPN 3
Tangerang Selatan)

By:
Taufik Rusandi
109014000106

THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2015

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING JIGSAW
TECHNIQUE IN TEACHING SPEAKING
"A Paper"
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers Training

in Partial Fulfillment of

the Requirements for Degree of S.Pd. in English Language Education

By:

@
NIM. 109014000106

Approved by the Advisors

n

(Xrx,,-,*
Dr. Atiq Susilo. M.A

Dr. Alek. M.Pd.

NIP:

NIP: 19609122009011008

19491 122197 8031001

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHER'S TRAINING
STATE ISLAMrc UNIYERSITY
SYARIF IIIDAYATUI,LAH

JAKARTA

20ls

ENDORSEMENT SHEET

The Examination Committee of the faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training
certifies that the "skripsi" (Scientific Paper) entitled THE EFFECTMNESS OF
USING JIGSAW TECHMQUE IN TEACHING SPEAKING, written by Taufik
Rusandi, student's regishation number 109014000106 was examined by the
committee on January 19,2015. The "skripsi" has been accepted and declared to have
fulfilled one of the requirements for Degree of "S.Pd" (Bachelor of Education) in
English Language Education at the English Departrnent.
Jakarta, 3 February 2015

EXAMINATION COMMITTEE

Chairman: Drs. Svauki. M.

Pd.

NIP. 196412r2 r99r03
Secretary:

(

t 002

Zaharil Anasv.IVI. Hum
NrP. 19761 007 2007 r0 t 002

Examiner

I:

Ismalianine Evivuliwati. M;ffum.
NIP. 19740723 200003 2 00r

Examiner

II:

Zaharil Anasv. M, HuEq
NrP. 19761007 2007t0 | 002

,[rknowfedgeilbt
Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training

NrP. 19591020 198603 2 001

KEMENTERIAN AGAMA
UIN JAKARTA

FORM (FR)

FITK
JI. h. H.

Juada No

95 Ciputat 15412lr,hnesia

:
Terbit :
No. Revisi: :

01

Hal

1t1

No. Dokumen
Tgl.

FITK-FR-AKD-089
13 Desember

2014

SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDTRI
Saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah

ini,

Nama

Taufik Rusandi

Tempat/Tgl. Lahir

Jakarta/3 Juni 1991

NIM

109014000106

Jurusan/Prodi

Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris/ Sl

The Effectiveness of Using Jigsaw Technique in

Judul Skripsi

Teaching Speaking
Dosen Pembimbing

:

1.

Dr. Atiq Susilo, M.A.

2.Dr. Alek, M.Pd.

dengan ini menyatakan bahwa skripsi yang saya buat benar-benar hasil karya saya
sendiri dan saya bertanggung jawab secara akademis atas apa yang saya tulis.
Pernyataan

ini dibuat sebagai salah satu syarat menempuh ujian munaqasah.

Jakarta, Januari 2015

Yang Menyatakan

Taufik Rusandi
NIM. 109014000106

ABSTRACT
Taufik Rusandi (NIM:109014000106). The Effectiveness of Using Jigsaw
Technique in Teaching Speaking. The paper of English Education Departement
at Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training of State Islamic University Syarif
Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2014.
Keywords: The Effectiveness Jigsaw Technique, Teaching English Speaking in
Junior High School.
This research has a purpose to get the empirical evidance about effect of
jigsaw technique on in teaching speaking by seeing quality and quantity of
discussion and telling story in the class. After the data collected, the writer
analyzed the data to see different of rising speaking ability on students by
calculating the achievment of pre test and post test to get the score of t-test, the
score of t-test is used to know the significant difference from two samples.
From the finding of the study, it can be conclude that the Jigsaw technique
gave significant rising on speaking ability. The communication and interaction in
the class give positive effect in speaking learning. Grammatical and pronunciation
which are learnt by theories, with Jigsaw technique that elements are learnt by
together and the experience of mistakes will be fixed by learning in
communicating in the class. the learning with high interaction and not bored made
the students were enthusiastic in learning.
With the result that, the writer hope in globalization era which is asked
every single person has a competence in English communication to be success.
The teacher must has a competence to create our students especially from junior
high school must have a competence in English, and they used English as
communication tool in the class.

iv

ABSTRAK
Taufik Rusandi (NIM: 109014000106). Efektivitas Penggunaan Teknik
Jigsaw dalam pengajaran berbicara. Pendidikan Jurusan di Fakultas Tarbiyah
dan Pelatihan Guru dari Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta,
2014.
Kata kunci: Efek Jigsaw Teknik, Pengajaran Berbahasa inggris di SMP.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bukti empiris tentang efek
penggunaan teknik jigsaw terhadap kemampuan berbahasa inggris siswa dengan
melihat kuantitas dan kualitas berdiskusi dan menceritakan cerita di kelas. Metode
yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kuantitatif. Dengan
mengumpulkan hasil data dari test kemampuan berbicara yang di dapat dari
partisipan. Instrument yang di gunakan sebagai pre test berbentuk test oral dengan
menceritakan cerita naratif yang telah di bagikan dan di baca oleh masing masing
siswa. Setelah data terkumpul, penulis menganalisis data untuk melihat berbagai
peningkatan kemampuan berbahasa pada siswa dengan cara menghitung nilai pre
test dan post test untuk mendapatkan nilai t-test, nilai t-test di gunakan untuk
mengetahui ada nya perbedaan yang signifikan dari dua sample.
Dari temuan penelitian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa teknik Jigsaw
memberikan peningkatan yang signifikan pada kemampuan berbicara.
Komunikasi dan interaksi di kelas memberikan efek positif dalam belajar
berbicara. Tata bahasa dan pengucapan yang dipelajari dengan teori-teori sebelum
nya, dengan teknik Jigsaw unsur tersebut dipelajari secara bersama-sama dan
pengalaman kesalahan akan diperbaiki dengan belajar dalam berkomunikasi di
kelas. pembelajaran dengan interaksi yang tinggi dan tidak bosan membuat siswa
antusias dalam belajar.
Dengan hasil itu, penulis berharap di era globalisasi yang meminta setiap
orang memiliki kompetensi dalam komunikasi bahasa Inggris bisa menjadi
sukses. Guru harus memiliki kompetensi untuk membuat siswa kami terutama
dari SMP harus memiliki kompetensi dalam bahasa Inggris, dan mereka terbiasa
untuk berbicara bahasa Inggris sebagai alat komunikasi di kelas

v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. All praises be to Allah,
the Lord of the world who has given the Mercy and Blessing upon the writer in
completing this paper. Peace and salutation be upon the prophet Muhammad, his
family and his followers.
In this occasion, the writer would like to express his greatest appreciation,
honour and gratitude to his beloved parents (Muksin and Rusmiyati) and sisters,
for their valuable supports and moral encouragement in motivating the writer to
finish his study.
The writer also would like to express his deepest gratitude to Dr. Atiq
Susilo, M.A and Dr. Alek, M.Pd for their advices, guidances, corrections, and
suggestions in finishing this paper.
His gratitude also goes to:
1. All lecturers of Department of English Education who have taught and
educated the writer during his study at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd., The Head of Department of English Education.
3. Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum., The Secretary of Department of English
Education.
4. Drs. NasifuddinJalil, M. Ag as the academic advisor.
5. Maryono M.M.Pd., The Headmaster of SMPN 3 Tangsel, who has given a
great chance to the writer to carry out the research at the school he leads.
6. Agit S.pd, The English teacher of SMPN 3 Tangsel who has helped the
writer in conducting this research.
7. All Second Grade of SMPN 3 Tangsel who had given a contribution for
the research.
8. Muh. Ilyas’s Family, Irma Sari Ningsih, Nurhassanah aka Jessica,
Mr Rajive Gandhi, Baron Caroline and all Cielers Indonesia for their
support more than 5 years.

vi

9. His friends in Department of English Education Academic Year
2009/2010 for sharing their knowledge, times, cares and supports.
10. His Friends and students in Primagama Sugar for sharing their knowledge,
times, cares and supports.
11. To any other person who cannot be mentioned one by one for their
contribution to the writer during finishing his Skripsi. The words are not
enough to say any appreciations for their help.

May Allah bless them for all of what they have done.

Finally, the writer feels that it is really pleasure for him to receive critics
and suggestions to make this Paper better. He also hopes that this Paper would be
beneficial, particularly for him and for those who are interested in it.

Jakarta, December 13, 2014

The writer

Taufik Rusandi

vii

TABLE OF CONTENT

APPROVAL....................................................................................................

i

ENDORSEMENT SHEET………………………………………………….

ii

SURAT PERNYATAAN KARYA SENDIRI..............................................

iii

ABSTRACT......................................................................................................

iv

ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................

v

ACKNOWLEDGMENT..................................................................................

vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................

vii

LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................

x

LIST OF APPENDICES..................................................................................

xi

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION...............................................................

1

A. Background of the Study. .……………………..............

1

B. Identification of the Problem………………...................

3

C. Limitation of the Problem…………………....................

4

D. Formulation of the Problem………………….................

4

E. Purpose of study………………………………..............

4

F. Significance of the Study……………………................

4

THEORITECAL FRAMEWORK......................................

5

A. Speaking……………………………………….............

5

1.

The Definition of Speaking…..…………...............

5

2.

The Elements of Speaking.................…….............

7

a. Pronunciation.....................................................

7

b. Grammar............................................................

9

c. Vocabulary.........................................................

10

CHAPTER II

vii

d. Fluency...............................................................

11

e. Comprehension................................................

13

The Problem of Speaking……………..................

13

B. Jigsaw Technique………………………….................

14

3.

1.

Definition of Jigsaw…………………..................

14

2.

Procedure of Jigsaw.........…………….................

17

3.

The Advantages of Jigsaw....................................

19

4.

The Disadvantages of Jigsaw…....……................

19

C. Teaching Speaking Using Jigsaw Technique...............

20

D. Previous Study.............................................................

21

E. Conceptual of Framework…….…………..................

22

F. Theoretical Hypothesies……………………................

23

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY...................................

24

A. Place and Time of the Research…………..................

24

B. The Method and Research design………...................

24

C. Population and Sample....…………………................

25

D. The Research Instrument..........……………...............

25

E. The Technique of Data Collection...………................

30

F. The Technique for Data Analysis…………................

30

G. Statistical Hypothesies...……………………...............
CHAPTER IV

32

RESEARCH FINDINGS ................................................

33

A. The Data Description..................................................

33

1. Pre-test Scores.........................................................

33

2. Post-test Scores.......................................................

35

3. Gained Scores..........................................................

37

B. The Data Analysis.......................................................

39

1. Mean Variabel X.....................................................

41

2. Mean variabel Y......................................................

41

3. Standard Deviation X.............................................

41

4. Standard Deviation Y.............................................

42

viii

5. Standard Error Mean X...........................................

42

6. Standard Error Mean Y...........................................

42

7. Standard Error of Different Mean..........................

43

8. Determining T.........................................................

43

C. Interpretation of the Data...........................................

44

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION............................

46

A. Conclusion……………………………......................

46

B. Suggestion……………………………......................

47

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………....

48

APPENDIXES……………………………………………………………..

50

ix

v

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1......................................................................................................

23

Table 3.2......................................................................................................

25

Table 4.1......................................................................................................

34

Table 4.2......................................................................................................

36

Table 4.3......................................................................................................

38

Table 4.4......................................................................................................

40

x

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1. Syllabus of Eighth Grade of Junior High School.............

51

Appendix 3. Research Instrument (Pre Test and Post test)..................

54

Appendix 2. Lesson Plan Pre test and Post test.....................................

63

Appendix 4. Lesson Plan of Experimental Class....................................

76

Appendix 5. Lesson Plan of Controled Class..........................................

116

Appendix 6. T Table..................................................................................

152

Appendix 7. Documentations....................................................................

153

xi

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Backgorund of the Study
Speaking is one of the ways to communicate in society. In the world
speaking ability is needed to face globalization era. In speaking many aspects
must be noticed. Students need ability and comprehention in speaking. As we
know, there are four language skills that have to be mastered by students in
learning English. They are reading, listening, writing, and speaking. Among those
skills, Speaking is one of the skills to be developed and mastered in English
language.
Furthermore in Indonesia, English is a foreign language that should be
taught from Elementary School. Beside that, Good communication skill in English
being a standarization in many institutes and coorporation. As the background,
Speaking learning becomes important thing which must be taught in the school.
But in the implementation, speaking learning has serious problem because
English is still as foreign language in Indonesia. Mostly students is not familiar to
speak English. Because of that, the teacher must have special technique to solve
problem of speaking learning by using teaching strategy correctly. In famous book
Dewey wrote that learning is learning to think and the better way of thinking is
reflective thinking. This reflective thinking is involved a process of translation
from situation to get the ways to solve it.1 As the student of English education
departement, we must know teacher role in the class. Essentially, teachers have
two major roles in the classroom: to create the conditions under which learning
can take place: the social side of teaching and to impart, by a variety of means,
and knowledge to their learners: the task-oriented side of teaching.2
Teachers have a role to conditioning the class as good as possible to make
students easier to understand the material in the class. The instructional side of a
1

Henry .J. Hermanowicz, Problem Solving as Teaching Method, (1961), p. 299.
Joachim Appel, Roles of Teachers, a Case Study Based on Diary of Language Teache,
(1995), p. 5.
2

1

2

teacher’s role is likely to be goal-oriented, task-dependent, knowledge based and
underpinned by a set of attitudes. Not only about knowledge, but also the
appropriate instructional strategies to employ in the classroom. The effectiveness
in learning is depend on the using of teaching strategy in the class. the strategy of
teacher to solve the problem of students’ learning will give effect and help in
reaching the goal of learning. It means that the teacher must have creative
methods and models in teaching in to reach the goal learning especially speaking
learning in the class.
SMP 3 Tangsel (Tangerang Selatan) is one of junior high school in
Tanggerang. It has 3 kind of study class: Acceleration class, Billingual class, And
Regular class. Based on the writer observation on PPKT 2013 (Pelatihan
Pendidikan Keguruan Terpadu), as the special needs class like Acceleration and
Billingual class definitely the teaching stratergy and conditioning of the the class
are different with Regular class. It made problem for Regular Class in 3 Junior
High School Tanggerang Selatan, mostly students in Regular class was difficult to
learning English especially speaking learning. The first problem is because
capacity of students in communicate with English was not much and it was in
contrast to billingual and acceleration class. Their opportunity to communicate in
English did not fulfill in each student, it made the speaking English ability of
regular class was not as good as the two classes in

that school. The

communication and interaction in English is happened only in teacher to students
in the class. The second is the learning English in Regular Class was focused on
the book and let the students understand from the exercises from teacher. Properly
in fact the communication and interaction of English correctly is important for
them. the third problem is because English is used as foreign language, it made
they were unhabitually to use english as communication in the class. In
addition,eighth grade of SMPN 3 Tangsel is using 2013 curricullum. Which is in
2013 curricullum tells that the activity of learning is focused on the students.
Departing the statement above, we need a suitable technique in teaching.
There are many techniques that we can apply to increase the speaking ability or
achievment on students. One of the techniques that writer wanted to research was

3

jigsaw technique. Jigsaw technique is one of the technique in cooperative learning
which is in the application this technique ask the students spare by a small group
with sharing, discussing and creating cooperative activity in the class. Richard M.
Felder and Rebecca Brent said in their paper “The idea of students learning is by
doing something actively than by simply watching and listening has long been
known to both cognitive psychologists and effective teachers and cooperative
learning is by its nature an active method”. 3 So in this case, the writer focuses on
the effectiveness of using jigsaw technique on students’ speaking ability.

B. Identification of Problem
Based on the background of study above, the problem which is identified
as follows:
1. Students have not be accustomed to use English in communication
because still using bahasa as communication tools in the class .
2.

Lack of communication in the class because Center of knowledege
and communicaton still on the teacher.

3. Limited

of

knowledge

about

speaking

elements:

Grammar,

pronunciation, accuracy, fluency, and vocabulary because students
only got the assignment or exercise from teacher.

C. Limitation of Problem
Based on the identification of problems above, the problems was limited
on the technique from cooperative learning method that teacher used in teaching
speaking. In this case, the writer uses jigsaw technique.

D. Formulation of Problem
Based on the limitation of the problem above, the writer formulated the
research question as follows; “Is jigsaw technique effective in teaching
speaking?”
3

Richard Felder and Rebecca Brent, Cooperative Learning, (Canada: Department of Chemical
Engineering, 2007), p. 2.

4

E. Purpose of Study
Purpose of this study is to get the empirical evidance about the effect of
jigsaw technique on students’ English in teaching English speaking by seeing
quality and quantity of communication by using discussion and telling story in the
class.

F. Significance of Study
Theoritically the result of this study expects to be significant for teachers,
students and others researchers. This study is expected to show the effect of
jigsaw technique in teaching speaking. This study also want to help the students
improve their English speaking ability as an active communication tool in the
school. The last, this study is expected can be a refrence for the other researcher
who want to make a research about effect of jigsaw technique in teaching
speaking. Practically this research is recommended for teacher to use Jigsaw
technique for teaching English in second grade of junior high school which is
appropriate with autonomous learning in Kurikulum 2013.

CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Speaking
1.

Definition of Speaking
Speaking is important skill in English. To learn speaking, we absolutely

need to know the definition of speaking. Speaking is an interactive process of
constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing
information.1 Effective oral communication requires the ability to use the
language appropriately in social interactions. Theodore said that language is
essentially speech, and speech is communication by sounds. In addition, speaking
is a skill used by someone in daily life communication whether at school or
outside.2 From the definition, it can be conclude that speaking is expressing, ideas,
opinion, or feeling to other by using words or sounds of articulation in order to
inform, to persuade, and to entertain someone or people.
Speaking and interaction become a connection for processing information.
But speaking will has problems in communication when the knowledge of
language and skills using the knowledge is not created in interaction. According to
Bygate, the knowledge of language and skill using the knowledge must be
considered in the achievment of a communicative goal. 3 Not only on the
understanding of that concept, the speaker should be able to use the knowledge in
different situations, to decide what to say, saying it clearly and flexible during
conversation and creates the second aspect of language. Bygates saw the speaking
skill is the result of comprising production skills and interactions skills.
The using of production skills which is said by Bygte is facilitation and
compensation, both devices which help students make the oral production possible
1

David Riddel, Teaching English as a Foreign/ Second Language, (Chicago: McGrawCompanies, 2001), p. 177.
2
Theodore, Audio Visual Teachique in Teaching Foreign Language, ( New york:Cambridge
University Press , 1960), p. 5.
3
Erik Vilímec, Developing Speaking Skills, (Chicago: Faculty of Art and Philosophy,
Departement of English and American Studies, 2006), p. 11.

5

6

or easier, or help them to change, avoid or replace the difficult expressions,
besides these elementary functions also help students to sound more naturally as
speakers of a foreign language. There are four elementary ways of facilitating that
Bygate distinguishes: simplifying structures, elipsis, formulaic expressions, and
using fillers and hesitation devices. On the other hand, when a speaker needs to
alter, correct or change what he or she has said, they will need to make use of
compensation devices. These include tools such a substitution, rephrasing,
reformulating, self-correction, false starts, and repetition and hesitation. Secondly
interaction skills, both speakers and listeners should be „good communicators’ it
means good at saying what they want to say in a way which the listener finds
understandable’,4 this means being able to possess interaction skills.
The theory of bygates is supported by Harmer, Harmer said that elements
of speaking has two aspects – knowledge of language and the ability to process
information5. The first aspect, language features, necessary for spoken production
involves. According to explenation of Harmer, the following features: connected
speech, expressive devices, lexis and grammar, and negotiation language.
connected speech including assimilation, elision, linking „r’, contractions and
stress patterning (weakened sounds). Expressive devices : pitch, stress, speed,
volume, physical non-verbal means for conveying meanings (supersegmental
features). Lexis and grammar supplying common lexical phrases for different
functions (agreeing, disagreeing, expressing shock, surprise, approval, etc.).
Negotiation language : in order to seek clarification and to show the structure of
what we are saying. Second is process information, it means interaction between
speaker and listener. According the explanation Bygate and Harmer, Both Bygate
and Harmer agreed a succesful speaker can use knowledge of language and skill to
process it. It means speaking and interaction in community can’t be built if
speaker dont have knowledge and skills to process it and listeners can’t to
understand the information which is extended by speaker.

4
5

Erik Vilímec, Ibid., p. 12.
Eric Vilimec, Ibid., p. 13.

7

There are many types of speaking, it is categorized from amount of
preparation and purpose. There are limited preparation speech and unlimited
preperation speech. The limited preparation speech are conversation and
interview. Both conversation and interview is a kind of speech which need a very
limited amount of preperation and performance without text. The interaction and
the understanding information which is happened is fast and spontantly. The
unlimited preperation speech are informative speech and persuasion. The
informative speech is kind of speech which focuses on identifies the important
topic and giving new understanding to audience from the result of research. The
informative speech is happened in presentation and speech on communities.
Persuasion is kind of speech which asks the audience to do something.
Advertisement is one of persuasive speech, persuasive speech providing the
audience with enough information to understand the topic under discussion,
appealing to the emotions, attitudes and values, and good sense of the listeners to
encourage support for the speaker’s stance, and setting up a course of action that is
well-suited to audience capabilities, ethical, and a logical outgrowth of the
arguments set up within the speech.
From the theory above we can conclude that as a human being, we always
need communication to express our idea to do everything. Speaking is one of
ways to communicate and express idea and information between people or
community. Because of that the language learning in the school is very important
if communicate intensely and high interaction must be built and one of the ways is
speaking.

2. The Elements of Speaking
Speaking is complex skill requering the simultaneous use of a number of
different ability, which often develops at different rate. Either five components are
generally recognized in analyzing the speech process. Those components are:
a. Pronunciation
As stated by harmers if students wants to be able speak to speak fluently in
English, they need to be able pronounce phonemes correctly, use appropriate

8

stress and intonation patterns and speak in connected speech.

6

Pronunciation

refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. 7It includes
attention to the particular sounds of a language (segments), aspects of speech
beyond the level of the individual sound, such as intonation, phrasing, stress,
timing, rhythm (suprasegmental aspects), how the voice is projected (voice
quality) and, in its broadest definition, attention to gestures and expressions that
are closely related to the way we speak a language. The speaker must be able to
articulate the words and the physical sounds that carry meaning. A speaker with
good pronunciation will be easy to understood than a speaker with bad
pronunciation even they have a perfect grammar. We can judge the people from
pronunciation, if their pronunciation bad we can called them incompetent. At the
level of word pronunciation, second language have problems distinguishing
between sounds in the new language that do not exist in language that they already
know.
The main components of pronunciation are sounds, syllables, and words.
building blocks of pronunciation are the individual sounds, the vowels and
consonants go together to make words. It is important to remember that there is a
difference between vowel and consonant letters and vowel and consonant sounds.
Vowel and consonant sounds combine into syllables. It can be helpful to think of
the structure of English syllables. A word can be either a single syllable or a
sequence of two or more syllables. When a word has more than one syllable, one
of these syllables is stressed in relation to other syllables in the word, while other
syllables are said to be unstressed. Pronunciation can be said as the act of uttering
with articulation, the act of giving the proper sound and accent, utterance, as the
pronunciation of syllables of words,distinct or indistinct pronunciation. It is a way
in which language is spoken. It includes segmental feature, vowel, and the
intonation patterns. From the definitions above, it can be inferred that learners
should master the words of the language because language consists of words. It is
6

Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, Forth Edition, (Pearson:
Education Limited, 2007), p. 343.
7
Amep Research Center, Fact sheet – What is Pronunciation?,(Australia: Adult Migrant
English Program Centre, October 2002), p. 1.

9

in order to be able to use the language approximately. Having mastered a large
number of words with sound and vowel. they will be able to express their ideas in
the language approximately and clearly.

b. Grammar
It is obvious that in order be able to speak foreign language, it is important
to know a certain amount of grammar and vocabulary. Grammar is the sounds and
the sound patterns, the basic units of meaning sucha as words and the rules to
combine them to form new sentences.

8

As according to David Crystal in his

article, he said that Grammar is the structural foundation of our ability to express
ourselves.9 For all teaching is ultimately a matter of getting to grips with
meaning. Become important things to know grammar, and it is better to write
grammatically than not, but it is well to remember that grammar is
common speech formulated. In general we knew grammar is set of rules
governing how the words in a language may be joined to make sense. We may
understand the meaning of a sentence without understanding the grammar. But
sometimes it will be difficult to understand the purpose of sentence if the the
composition of grammar is not correct. In the result grammar is important part in
English.
There are five basics elements of English Grammar , these are basic
elements of English grammar: Sentences (complete, run-on, and fragments),
Tenses , Pronouns , Possessives and Commas.10 An understanding and application
of these fundamental elements of grammar will help students unleash the power of
the English language. Altough in each elements has its roles but it has connection
and complete to other elements. The ambiguity will not be happened if all
elements is noticed by speaker. Therefore, grammar is very important in speaking
because it is needed to mastering English speaking well in meaning side and
discreasing ambiguity.
8

Victoria Fromklin and Robert Rodman, An Introduction to Language, (New York:
Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998), p. 14.
9
David Crystal, "In Word and Deed.", http://grammar.about.com/, 3 july 2014.
10
James Delaney, Grammar Review, (Cayuga: Academic Support Center, 2006), p. 1.

10

c.

Vocabulary
As we know, vocabulary is a basic elements in language. Vocabulary is

single words, set phrases, variable phrases, phrasal verb and idioms.11 According
to Richards vocabulary is the core component of language proficiency and
provides much of the basis for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.
Jackson and Amvela say that the terms of vocabulary, lexis, and lexicon are
synonymous. Vocabulary is one of the language components that can affect macro
skills. Some definition of vocabulary is proposed by some experts. In addition,
Richards and Schmidt state that vocabulary is a set of lexeme, including single
words, compound words, and idioms.
Vocabulary development refers to the knowledge of stored information
about the meanings and pronunciations of words necessary for communication.
Vocabulary development is important for beginer speaker in that when a student
sounds out a word, he or she is also determining if the word makes sense based on
his or her understanding of the word. If a student does not know the meaning of
the word, it is difficult to check for the word that fits or not. Vocabulary
development is also a primary determinant of speaking. Speaker cannot
understand the content and topic of what they are speaking unless they understand
the meaning of the majority of words in speech and also the speaker will be
difficult to speak if they have problem in the knowledge of vocabulary in their
selves. According to the Collins Cobuild English dictionary,there are two types of
vocabulary, vocabulary of language is the total number of word in it and
someone’s vocabulary is the total of words in a language that he or she knows.12
The vocabulary of language always changes and grows in community of
people and

become more complex, people devise or borrow new words to

describe man’s activities. Talking about vocabulary, Lehr, Osborn, and Hiebert
defined vocabulary as knowledge of words and words meaning in both oral and
print language and in productive and receptive forms. Harmer summarized that
11

Keith S. Folse, Vocabulary Myths, Applying Second Language Reseacrh to Classroom
Teaching, (Michigan: University of Michigan, 2004) , p. 2.
12
Rosa Lopez Campillo, Teaching and Learning: An Introduction for English Student,
(Rome: De Magisterio De Albacete), p. 35.

11

knowing a vocabulary means knowing about meaning, word use, word formation,
and word grammar. Word meaning is also governed by metaphors and idioms, the
word hiss refers to the noise of snake and to someone‟ s threat to others. In
collocation, a word goes with each other, such as, headache, earache, and so on.
In addition, style and register is applied by differentiating the language to be used
by someone either in a formal or informal context, for example hello (formal) and
hi (informal). Moreover, word formation may also create word meaning vy seeing
them on their grammatical contexts. It means that we look at how the suffixes and
the prefixes work such as in imperfect and perfect, inappropriate and appropriate.
there are some aspects that have to be discussed in vocabulary, namely: word
meaning (synonym, antonym, connotation, and denotation), extending word use
such as idioms, word combination or collocation, and the grammar of words
which comprises noun,verb, adjective, and adverb. With all definitions, show us
that vocabulary is the first element that the English learners should learn in order
to master English well. With limited vocabulary the conversation in people
interaction will not be possible.

d. Fluency
In simple terms, fluency is the ability to talk freely without too much
stoping or hestitating. Meanwhile, according to Gower et- al fluency can be
thought of as the ability to keep going when speaking spontaneosly.

13

The

ultimate goal of many secon language learners is to be fluent in the target
language, fluently in speaking of course mean to be ablle express their thought
and meaning easly and smoothy without feel stuck in any situations.

the

definition of fluency firstly explained by Pawley and Syder, they said that fluency
is ability to produce fluent streches of discourse like as the native speaker.

14

Day

and Shapson defined fluency as: “the ease and flow of the student's speech in

13

David Riddel, Teach English as a Second Language, (Chicago: McGrew Hill Companies,
2011), p. 118.
14
Judit Kormos and Mariann Dénes, Exploring Measures And Perceptions of Fluency In
The Speech of Second Language Learners, (Budapest: Eötvös Loránd University), p. 3.

12

comparison with native speakers. “15 they elaborated the four levels, The four
levels are 1. halting, slow speech, noticeable breaks between words, seems to
require much effort; 2. speech is uneven, some noticeable breaks between words,
seems to require effort, occasionally halting, tend to but not necessarily have
slower speech rate than level three; 3. relatively smooth and effortless speech but
rate of speech is slower than native or perceptibly non-native; and 4. relatively
smooth, native-like rate of speech.
The man who investegated about fluency is Fillmore, as Fillmore
conceptualised fluency in four different ways. First, he defined fluency as the
ability to talk at length with few pauses and to be able to fill the time with talk.
Second, a fluent speaker is not only capable of talking without hesitations but of
expressing his/her message in a coherent, reasoned and "semantically densed"
manner. Third, a person is considered to be fluent if he/she knows what to say in a
wide of range of contexts. Finally, Fillmore argued that fluent speakers are
creative and imaginative in their language use and a maximally fluent speaker has
all of the above mentioned abilities. These definitions suggest that fluency can be
measured by looking at the speed and flow of language production, the degree of
control of langugae and the way language and content interact.
For Beatens Beardsmore, oral fluency is understood to imply a
'communicative competence' requiring an ability to formulate accurate and
appropriate utterances of more than one sentence in length”16. He explained his
concept of fluency in these terms: "Oral fluency requires the ready availability of
this communicative competence for the formulation of appropriate utterances in
real time, involving a strategy for the elaboration of sentence structures, as well as
the selection and insertion of lexical items. Individual sentences must be
integrated into connected discourses". Beardsmore selected specific criteria and
established them as a function of his aims. These are : fluency (tentatively defined
as the ability to give proof of sustained oral communicative spontaneous
competence, use of production as well implying as the 'conversational a certain
15

Marguerite E. Ascione, Fluency Development in Second Language Teaching, (Alberta:
University Of Lethbridge, 1985), p. 8.
16
Marguerite E. Ascione, op. cit., p. 10.

13

unstilted, lubricants', accuracy (structural and lexical), relevance, intelligibility,
pronunciation, variety of structures and variety of lexis.
It is interesting to note that fluency is considered here as one element of
oral fluency assessment, which in this case one could call oral proficiency. When
speaking fluently students should be able to get the messeage across with what
ever resources and abilites they have got, regardless of gramatical and other
mistakes. As one of important aspects in speaking, fluency become standart of
assesment in speaking test.

e. Comprehension
The last speaking elements is comprehension. Comprehension is discussed
by both speakers because comprehension can make people getting the information
they want. Comprehension is defined as the ability to understand something by
reasonable comprehension of the subjet or as the knowledge of what a situation is
really like.
And according some theories said that there are 7 elements in
communication in the society those are : Speaker as the people who speak,
message as the meaning which want to explain, Channel as the mean by which a
message is

communicated, Listener as the person who receives the speaker

message, Feedback as the message from listener to the speaker, Interference is
anything that impedes communication of message and there is two type :interneal
and external, and Situation is time and place where the communication occurs.

3.

Problem of Speaking
As one of skills in a language, speaking has problem which is faced by the

learner. Learning foreign language is not easy for some students, because the
position as foreign language which is not always used in daily activity. According
to Munjanayah first problem is inhibition, speaking requires some degree of realtime exposure to an audience. Some learners in classroom are worried to say
something because they are shy or they dont know how to say it correctly. Beside
that, they worried to say because they dont have much vocabulary enough in their

14

brain for expressing their idea. The second problem is there is gap between active
and pasive students in the class, it is back to the personal of students because there
are some students are talkless and others are talkactive. The last is mother tongue
some students have problem in mother tongue, of course it happened because the
language which is learnt is foreign language and they are unfamiliar to use it in
communication.
All problems above are general problem which is faced in learning in
speaking. The writer also met problem in speaking learning in SMPN 3 Tangsel,
the observation was taken when the writer taught in PPKT 2013.

B. Jigsaw Technique
1.

Definition of Jigsaw
Jigsaw technique is one of Cooperative learning method. It is based on

group dynamics and social interactions. This technique was designed by Aronson
and it used by Slavin in 1978.Slavin says “jigsaw was one of the earliest of
cooperative learning method. In jigsaw, each student in a five –to six- member
group is given unique the whole information on a topic that group is studying”.17
Jigsaw technique can be meant as a system of teaching which gives the
opportunity to the students to work in a group structuraly. This technique allows
the student able to learn and active to participate in learning process.” Jigsaw
technique is a cooperative learning method that requires everyone’s cooperative
effort to produce the final product. Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece and each
student’s part are essential for the production and full understanding of the final
product. This technique mix the activity of reading, writing, litening and speaking.
in this technique the teacher see the background of the experience on students and
help the students to be active in studying.

The

purpose

of

technique

is

appropriated with the concept of cooperative learning method which is develop
the amount of students’ participation in the classroom and reduces the need for
competitiveness and the teacher’s dominance in the classroom. Jigsaw technique
17

E Slavin, Learning to Cooperate, Cooperating to Learn, (New York: Plenum Press,
1987) p. 17.

15

also designed to increase the responsibility on the students in the class. Active
situations in the class become important requisite for this technique,
individualistic and teaching focused on teacher is not allowed in this technique.
Many observers has studied about this technique, one of them is Johnson and
Holubec. Johnson and Holubec put forward five principles for jigsaw strategy:
a.

Positive interdependence
Each group member’s efforts are required and indispensable for the group

success. Each group member has to make unique contributions to the joint effort.
b.

Face-to-face promotive interaction
Group members have to orally explain how to solve problems, teach one’s

knowledge to others, check for understanding, discuss concepts being learned and
associate the present learning with the past one.
c.

Individual and group accountability
The size of the group should be kept small, for the smaller the size of the

group is, the greater the individual accountability may be. The teacher is expected
to give an individual test to each student, randomly examine students by asking
one student to present his or her group’s work orally to the teacher (in the
presence of the group) or to the entire class, observe each group and record the
frequency with which each member contributes to the group’s work, appoint one
student in each group as the leader, who is responsible for asking other group
members to explain the rationale underlying the group answers, and monitor
students to teach what they’ve learned to the others.
d.

Interpersonal skills
Social skills are a necessity for the success of jigsaw learning in class.

Social skills include leadership, decision-making, trust-building, communication,
conflict management skills and so on.
e.

Group processing
Group members discuss how well they are achieving their goals and

maintaining effective working relationships, describe what member actions are
helpful and what are not, and make decisions about what behaviors to continue or
change. Jigsaw learning makes it possible for students to be introduced to material

16

and yet bear a high level of personal responsibility. It helps develop teamwork and
cooperative learning skills within all students and a depth of knowledge not
possible if the students learn all of the material on them own. Finally, since
students are supposed to report their own findings to the home group in jigsaw
learning, it quite often discloses a student’s own understanding of a concept as
well as reveal any misunderstandings.
The Jigsaw technique is different from other techniques, especially with
Grammar translation. In Grammar Translation Method the point of teaching is
grammatical and vocabulary like Brown said “The Grammar Translation Method
requires few specialized skills on the part of teachers. Tests of grammar rules and
of translations are easy to construct and can be objectively scored. Many
standardized tests of foreign languages still do not attempt to tap into
communicative abilities, so students have little motivation to go beyond grammar
analogies, translations, and rote exercises.”18 it means Grammar Translation
Method is not to concentrate in communication learning. The students only focus
on understanding of grammar and translation of sentence. the most fundamental
reason for learning the language is give learners access to English literature,
develop their minds "mentally" through foreign language learning, and to build in
them the kinds of grammar, reading, vocabulary and translation skills necessary to
pass any one of a variety of mandatory written tests required at High School or
Tertiary level. It is very contradict with Jigsaw Technique which is focus in
communication in learning. Jigsaw Technique is cooperative learning which
guides students for interact actively and positively in group. It is allowed
creativity in learning. The understanding of grammar and translation is not be a
main focus in here but not mean not to learn in Jigsaw technique, the
understanding of grammar and translation is learnt naturally on the practice of
communication. The last difference among Grammar Translation Method is center
of learning of Jigsaw are students, the teacher just give facility to student to
understand naturally.
18

Sylva Ducháčková, Methods And Approaches In Foreign Language Teaching, (Masaryk
University Brno: Department Of English Language And Literature,2006), p. 9.

17

2.

Procedure of Jigsaw
In the Application Jigsaw technique students are separated from their own

groups and form new groups with the other students who are responsible for
preparing the same subjects. These groups, called “groups of experts” try to make
other students understand the subject; they make plans about how they can teach
the subject to their friends, and prepare a report. Afterwards, they turn to their own
groups and teach their subjects to them with the help of the reports they have
prepared. In the last stage, stage of completing, teachers can perform some
activities with individuals, small groups or the whole class in order to unify
students’ learning. For instance, she/he can make one of the home groups or
individual students make presentations in the classroom on their subjects. In the
evaluation stage, the study is completed by making the evaluation proposed by the
cooperative learning method.19
Furthermore in the implementation of Jigsaw Technique there are seven
steps according to Jin Xiao20. These are seven steps in applicant of Jigsaw
technique :
Step 1: Choosing a passage, the teacher chose material for

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